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    Investigation and Optimization of Degradation Process of Contaminants of Chemical Industrial Wastewater Using Enhanced Nanophotocatalysts under Visible and Solar Light

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Feilizadeh, Mehrzad (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Aalemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Photocatalytic degradation is one of the developing modern and effective methods for decontamination of hazardous pollutants of chemical industrial wastewater. This method has several advantages including the possibility of using free and sustainable energy of sun. However, it is still needed to active photocatalysts under solar light and also the enhancement and optimization of operating parameters, and consequently, these topics are selected as goals of the present thesis. Accordingly in this research, first, to obtain a photocatalyst that is highly efficient (especially under visible and solar light), multi-doping and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used and for the first time,... 

    Chemically Modified Electrode Based on Carbon Nanostructures and Metal Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Application in Determination of the Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds and Oxygen Reduction at Soft Interfaces Catalyzed by in Situ Generated Reduced Graphene Oxide

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Rastgar Kafshgarkolaei, Shokoufeh (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    In the first part, the preparation of metallic, bi-metallic (alloy or mixtures) and metallic oxide nanoparticles on the substrate of carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotube and graphene based nanosheets) has been performed using chemical and electrochemical procedures. Then, the prepared nanostructures were characterized by electron microscopy, spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Finally, the nanofilms have been evaluated for sensing applications as a modifier on the electrode surface for accurate determination of trace amounts of some important pharmaceutical and biological compounds. In the first work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles... 

    Rheological Characterization of Nanocomposite Alloy of Polyethylene/ Polyethylene Vinyl Acetate and Nano Cla

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology kamali Miab, Sona (Author) ; Ramazani Saadatanadi, Ahmad (Supervisor)
    In this thesis, polyethylene vinyl acetate and polyethylene shrinkable nanocomposite films with different percentages of an organoclay such as 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% have been prepared via two-steps solution method. Morphological and properties of these films, including permeability and mechanical and rheological properties were investigated. Also the effect of addition of cross linking agent (DCP) was studied. Various tests including XRD, SEM, tensile and rheological properties were studied. XRD tests showed that the distance between a layer of or ganoclay increased to 32 percent. This indicates that the polymer chains between the layers of organoclay could be better. SEM examination showed that... 

    Oxidative Desulfurization of Gas Condensate

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Keshavarzi, Samaneh (Author) ; Seifkordi, Ali Akbar (Supervisor) ; Bazmi, Mansour (Co-Advisor) ; Ghaedian, Maryam (Co-Advisor)
    Due to increasing environmental concern, special interest has been paid to reduction of organosulfur compounds in transportaion fuels. The sulfur- containing compounds are converted into sulfur oxide, i.e, SOx , during combustion, which is a major source of acid rain and air pollution.Gas condensate is a mixture consisting primarily of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons which is recovered as a liquid from natural gas. It is a proper hydrocarbon source for producing gasoline, kerosene and gas oil in refineries. In this reseach a gas condensate was used as feedstock for studing oxidative desulfurization (ODS). The influence of various parameters of desulforization including the reaction... 

    Oxidative Desulfurization of Light Fuel Oils

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Sobati, Mohammad Amin (Author) ; Molaei Dehkordi, Asghar (Supervisor) ; Shahrokhi, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) is one of the desulfurization processes that posseses several important advantages such as mild operating conditions. In the present work, oxidative desulfurization of kerosene with a total sulfur content of 2335 ppm and gas oil with a total sulfur content of 7990 ppm were carefully investigated. By evaluation of different oxidation systems, the hydrogen peroxide-formic acid system was selected for the oxidation of sulfur-containing compounds of the light fuel oils. The effects of main operating parameters of the oxidation system including temperature, hydrogen peroxide to sulfur molar ratio (O/S), and formic acid to sulfur molar ratio (Acid/S) on the... 

    Antioxidant Production from Rice Bran and Optimization of the Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Arab, Fatemeh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Maghsoudi, Vida (Supervisor)
    An antioxidant is a molecule capable of preventing the oxidation of other molecules and neutralizing free radicals. Free radicals are the root cause for many human diseases.Rice bran is one of the most important co-products in the rice milling.In this research antioxidant activity of two Iranian rice bran varieties Fajr and Tarem, extracted by three different solvents (methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate),determined at different time of extraction by measurement of total phenolic content, free radical scavenging, inhabitation of linoleic acid peroxidation and reducing power. The methanolic extract of Fajr rice bran produced strong results in antioxidant activity. The amount of Total... 

    Aza Michael Addition of Amines to α,β-Unsaturated Compounds and Alkene Epoxidation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Arabali, Taraneh (Author) ; Mahmoudi Hashemi, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    This thesis contains two parts .In the first part a catalyst such as AlCl3/Al20 has been demonstrated to catalyze Michael addition reaction of amines to a,�- unsaturated compounds with high yields , short reaction time and under solvent-free condition.The Michael addition to a,�- unsaturated compounds produces quantitively the mono addition products.The next part is about olefins epoxidation . Alkene epoxidation is a useful reaction in organic synthesis. Epoxides play an important role in industrial intermediates for the production of fine chemicals as well as pharmaceuticals .The hydrogen peroxide has been used as an oxidant because it is considered as an economical and appropriate reagent... 

    Horseradish peroxidase immobilization on amine functionalized carbon nanotubes: direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis

    , Article Progress in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism ; Volume 37, Number 2 , 2012 , pp. 161-172 Tasviri, M. (Mahboubeh) ; Ghourchian, H. (Hedayatollah) ; Gholami, M. R. (Mohammad Reza) ; Rafieepour, H. A. (Hossain Ali) ; Sharif University of Technology
    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was successfully immobilized on amine functionalized TiO2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NH2 – TiO2 – CNTs) by a convenient and efficient method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were applied to characterize the HRP/NH2 – TiO2 – CNT nano-composite. These techniques showed that the NH2 – TiO2 – CNTs greatly enhance the electron transfer between HRP and the modified electrode. Owing to the redox reaction of the electroactive centre of HRP, the HRP = NH2 – TiO2 – CNTs modified electrode exhibited a pair of quasi-reversible peaks with a peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp) of 70.6 mV and a formal potential (E 0′) of 367.65 mV... 

    A novel iron complex containing an N,O-type bidentate oxazoline ligand: Synthesis, X-ray studies, DFT calculations and catalytic activity

    , Article Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy ; Vol. 133, issue , Jun , 2014 , p. 432-438 Amini, M ; Arab, A ; Derakhshandeh, P. G ; Bagherzadeh, M ; Ellern, A ; Woo, L. K ; Sharif University of Technology
    A five-coordinated Fe(III) complex with the distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration was synthesized by reactions of FeCl36H2O and 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)oxazoline (Hphox) as a bidentate ON donor oxazoline ligand. Complex [Fe(phox)2Cl] was fully characterized, including by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. DFT calculations were accompanied with experimental results in order to obtain a deeper insight into the electronic structure and vibrational normal modes of complex. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides in one-step was conducted by this complex as catalyst using urea hydrogen peroxide (UHP) in mixture of CH2Cl 2/CH3OH (1:1) under air at room temperature. The results show that using... 

    Selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides by a molybdate-based catalyst using 30% hydrogen peroxide

    , Article Catalysis Communications ; Vol. 52, issue , July , 2014 , pp. 16-21 ; ISSN: 15667367 Bayat, A ; Shakourian-Fard, M ; Hashemi, M. M ; Sharif University of Technology
    An efficient method is reported for selective oxidation of various types of sulfides to sulfoxides and sulfones in good to high yields using 30% H 2O2 in the presence of catalytic amounts of molybdate-based catalyst in acetonitrile as solvent at room temperature. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for seven reaction cycles without considerable loss of activity  

    Simple and green oxidation of cyclohexene to adipic acid with an efficient and durable silica-functionalized ammonium tungstate catalyst

    , Article Catalysis Communications ; Vol. 43 , 5 January , 2014 , pp. 169-172 Vafaeezadeh, M ; Mahmoodi Hashemi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    A novel silica-functionalized ammonium tungstate interphase catalyst has been reported as a non-nitric acid route for adipic acid production from one-pot oxidative cleavage of 30% hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amounts of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The catalyst has been simply prepared by commercially available starting material. The structure of the catalyst has been investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy, atomic absorption, TEM, SEM and XRD analysis. The catalyst has shown good to high activity even up to 10 runs of reaction. Simple preparation of the catalyst, avoids using harmful phase transfer catalyst (PTC) and/or chlorinated additives are among the other benefits of this work  

    Improvement of palm oil and sunflower oil blends by enzymatic interestrification

    , Article International Journal of Food Science and Technology ; Volume 46, Issue 5 , 2011 , Pages 1093-1099 ; 09505423 (ISSN) Yazdi, Z. K ; Alemzadeh, I ; Sharif University of Technology
    Palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SFO) blends with varying proportions were subjected to enzymatic interesterification (EIE) using a 1,3-specific immobilised lipase. The interesterified blends were evaluated for their slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) at 10-40°C, p-anisidine value, peroxide value, free fatty acids (FFA), induction period of oxidation at 110°C (IP110) and composition of fatty acids by gas chromatography. Under EIE treatment, the blends of PO and SFO in different proportions (20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 80:20) had saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content in the range of 37.6-52.0% and 48.0-62.4%, respectively. The blends showed a considerable reduction in... 

    Polymeric ionic liquid nanogel-anchored tungstate anions: A robust catalytic system for oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides

    , Article New Journal of Chemistry ; Volume 39, Issue 2 , 2015 , Pages 1348-1354 ; 11440546 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Nazari Chamazkoti, M ; Hosseini, S. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    A new heterogeneous catalytic system was prepared by immobilization of tungstate ions on a cross-linked poly(ionic liquid) nanogel. The solid nanogel was easily synthesized by a surfactant-less method. The resulting catalyst was highly active in selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides by H2O2. The oxidation reactions were successfully performed under solvent-free conditions affording high yields. The catalyst was recycled and reused for several reaction cycles without any significant loss of catalytic activity  

    Catalytic behavior of an iron(III) complex containing an N,O-type bidentate oxazoline ligand for selective oxidation of sulfides

    , Article Transition Metal Chemistry ; Volume 41, Issue 1 , 2016 , Pages 97-105 ; 03404285 (ISSN) Amini, M ; Khaksar, M ; Arab, A ; Masoomi Jahandizi, R ; Bagherzadeh, M ; Boghaei, D. M ; Ellern, A ; Keith Woo, L ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer International Publishing 
    The reaction of Fe(acac)3 and 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)oxazoline (Hphox) as a bidentate O,N donor ligand afforded a six-coordinated iron(III) complex [Fe(phox)2(acac)] with distorted octahedral configuration. The complex was isolated as an air-stable crystalline solid and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, solution electrical conductivity, and by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The structure, electronic properties, and vibrational normal modes of the complex were investigated by DFT. The use of this complex as a catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides to their corresponding sulfoxides using urea hydrogen peroxide as the primary oxidant was investigated. The catalyst shows very... 

    Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol in a new two-impinging-jets reactor

    , Article Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research ; Volume 48, Issue 23 , 2009 , Pages 10619-10626 ; 08885885 (ISSN) Dehkordi, A. M ; Ebrahimi, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    The catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of phenol with activated carbon (AC) as the catalyst has been successfully tested in a novel type of two-impinging-jets reactor (TIJR). The TIJR is characterized by a high-intensity reaction chamber, which is separated by a perforated plate from other parts of the reactor. The perforated plate was used as a filter to keep the catalyst particles within the reaction chamber. The influences of various operating and design parameters such as jet Reynolds number, feed flow rate, internozzle distance, and the jet diameter on the performance capability of the TIJR were investigated. As a result of the impinging process, turbulence, complex trajectory of...