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    A novel needle trap sorbent based on carbon nanotube-sol-gel for microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aquatic media

    , Article Analytica Chimica Acta ; Volume 683, Issue 2 , January , 2011 , Pages 212-220 ; 00032670 (ISSN) Bagheri, H ; Ayazi, Z ; Aghakhani, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    A new type of composite material based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and sol-gel chemistry was prepared and used as sorbent for needle trap device (NTD). The synthesized composite was prepared in a way to disperse CNTs molecules in a sol-gel polymeric network. CNT/silica composites with different CNT doping levels were successfully prepared, and the extraction capability of each composite was evaluated. Effects of surfactant and the oxidation duration of CNTs on the extraction efficiency of synthesized composites were also investigated. The applicability of the synthesized sorbent was examined by developing a method based on needle trap extraction (NTE) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry... 

    Interactive optimization of biosurfactant production by Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 isolated from an Iranian oil well

    , Article Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces ; Volume 82, Issue 1 , 2011 , Pages 33-39 ; 09277765 (ISSN) Najafi, A. R ; Rahimpour, M. R ; Jahanmiri, A. H ; Roostaazad, R ; Arabian, D ; Soleimani, M ; Jamshidnejad, Z ; Sharif University of Technology
    The potential of an indigenous bacterial strain isolated from an Iranian oil field for the production of biosurfactant was investigated in this study. After isolation, the bacterium was characterized to be Paenibacillus alvei by biochemical tests and 16S ribotyping. The biosurfactant, which was produced by this bacterium, was able to lower the surface tension of media to 35. mN/m. Accordingly, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and FT-IR has been carried out to determine compositional analysis of the produced biosurfactant. After all the tests related to characterization of the biosurfactant produced by the isolated bacterium, it was characterized as lipopeptide derivative. The combination of... 

    Mechanistic study of wettability alteration of oil-wet calcite: The effect of magnesium ions in the presence and absence of cationic surfactant

    , Article Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects ; Volume 482 , October , 2015 , Pages 403-415 ; 09277757 (ISSN) Karimi, M ; Al Maamari, R. S ; Ayatollahi, S ; Mehranbod, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    Over 60% of the world's discovered oil reserves are held in carbonate reservoirs, which are mostly naturally fractured. Conventional water flooding results in low oil recovery efficiency in these reservoirs as most of them are oil-wet. On account of negative capillary forces, injected brine cannot penetrate simply into an oil-wet matrix of fractured formations to force the oil out. Wettability alteration of the rock surface to preferentially more water-wet state has been extensively studied using both smart water and surfactants separately. This study aims to study the effects of Mg2+ as one of the most important wettability influencing ions on the wetting properties of oil-wet carbonate... 

    Enhancement of fungal delignification of rice straw by Trichoderma viride sp. to improve its saccharification

    , Article Biochemical Engineering Journal ; Volume 101 , September , 2015 , Pages 77-84 ; 1369703X (ISSN) Ghorbani, F ; Karimi, M ; Biria, D ; Kariminia, H. R ; Jeihanipour, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    Fungal delignification can be considered as a feasible process to pre-treat lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production, if its performance is improved in terms of efficiency thorough a few modifications. In this study, Trichoderma viride was utilized to investigate the effect of wet-milling, addition of surfactant (Tween 80) and optimization of operating factors such as temperature, biomass to liquid medium ratio and glucose concentration on biodelignification of rice straw. Next, the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass was studied at various pretreatment times. Results revealed that the wet milling and addition of surfactant increases the lignin removal about 15% and 11%,... 

    Rheology, stability and filtration characteristics of colloidal gas aphron fluids: role of surfactant and polymer type

    , Article Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering ; Volume 26 , September , 2015 , Pages 895-906 ; 18755100 (ISSN) Tabzar, A ; Arabloo, M ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    Colloidal Gas Aphron (CGA) are finding increasing application in fields of science and engineering because of their distinctive characteristic. As interest in the application of CGA based fluids grows and in order to select the best procedure for using them in successful petroleum engineering operations, there is a need to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect their properties and behavior. This article discusses the rheological characterization, stability analysis and filtration properties of CGA based fluids for three bio-polymers and two ionic surfactant. The stability and filtration analysis were investigated with the static drain rate technique and API filtration tests,... 

    Use of surfactants in cellulose nanowhisker/epoxy nanocomposites: effect on filler dispersion and system properties

    , Article Cellulose ; Volume 22, Issue 5 , 2015 , Pages 3161-3176 ; 09690239 (ISSN) Emami, Z ; Meng, Q ; Pircheraghi, G ; Manas-Zloczower, I ; Sharif University of Technology
    Kluwer Academic Publishers  2015
    Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) prepared via TEMPO mediated oxidation are used as biodegradable filler in an epoxy matrix. Since CNWs are hydrophilic and epoxy is hydrophobic, amphiphilic block copolymer surfactants are employed to improve the interactions between the filler and the matrix. The surfactants used are Pluronics, a family of triblock copolymers containing two poly(ethylene oxide) blocks and one poly(propylene oxide) block. In this study, Pluronic L61 and L121 with molecular weight of 2000 and 4400 g/mol and hydrophilic to lipophilic balance of 3 and 1 respectively, are used and their effect on the dispersion of CNWs in epoxy is discussed. The hydrophilic tails of Pluronics... 

    Dynamics of Rear Stagnant Cap formation at the surface of spherical bubbles rising in surfactant solutions at large Reynolds numbers under conditions of small Marangoni number and slow sorption kinetics

    , Article Advances in Colloid and Interface Science ; Volume 222 , 2015 , Pages 260-274 ; 00018686 (ISSN) Dukhin, S. S ; Kovalchuk, V. I ; Gochev, G. G ; Lotfi, M ; Krzan, M ; Malysa, K ; Miller, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    On the surface of bubbles rising in a surfactant solution the adsorption process proceeds and leads to the formation of a so called Rear Stagnant Cap (RSC). The larger this RSC is the stronger is the retardation of the rising velocity. The theory of a steady RSC and steady retarded rising velocity, which sets in after a transient stage, has been generally accepted. However, a non-steady process of bubble rising starting from the initial zero velocity represents an important portion of the trajectory of rising, characterized by a local velocity profile (LVP). As there is no theory of RSC growth for large Reynolds numbers Re « 1 so far, the interpretation of LVPs measured in this regime was... 

    Simulation and control of monomer conversion in a continuous emulsion polymerization reactor

    , Article IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 7 June 2015 through 10 June 2015 ; Volume 48, Issue 8 , 2015 , Pages 315-320 ; 14746670 (ISSN) Barazandegan, M ; Shahrokhi, M ; Abedini, H ; Vafa, E ; Guay, M ; Gopaluni, B ; Huang, B ; Findeisen, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    IFAC Secretariat  2015
    A detailed pseudo-bulk model has been used for prediction of conversion and particle size distribution (PSD) of vinyl acetate in a continuous emulsion polymerization reactor. Finite volume (FV) and moment techniques are applied for solving population balance equation under continuous operation. It is found that both methods can predict sustained oscillations in the monomer conversion, however the FV method matches the experimental data better than the moment method. The monomer conversion and free surfactant concentration are controlled via two single control loops. In this work, a new control strategy for controlling monomer conversion has been proposed. It has been shown that monomer... 

    Phase behavior and interfacial tension evaluation of a newly designed surfactant on heavy oil displacement efficiency; effects of salinity, wettability, and capillary pressure

    , Article Fluid Phase Equilibria ; Volume 396 , 2015 , Pages 20-27 ; 03783812 (ISSN) Dehghan, A. A ; Masihi, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    This work aims to discuss the results of wide ranges of laboratory investigations to evaluate the performance of a newly-formulated surfactant for heavy oil reservoirs in order to improve the microscopic sweep efficiency after water flooding processes. In the first part, the specific behavior of the formulated surfactant including its salinity tolerance, interfacial tension, and optimum performance window was determined. Then, the application of surfactant solutions in real sandstone reservoir rocks was assessed for both oil-wet and water-wet cases. Besides, the effect of changing the capillary and viscous forces and interfacial tension on the residual phase saturations were characterized.... 

    Comparison and modification of models in production of biosurfactant for Paenibacillus alvei and Bacillus mycoides and its effect on MEOR efficiency

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Volume 128 , April , 2015 , Pages 177-183 ; 09204105 (ISSN) Najafi, A. R ; Roostaazad, R ; Soleimani, M ; Arabian, D ; Moazed, M. T ; Rahimpour, M. R ; Mazinani, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    Biosurfactant production from two indigenous consortia has already been investigated in two previous studies. In this study, comparison and modification of those models for having as much biosurfactant as possible was conducted. After characterization of bacteria by biochemical tests and 16S ribotyping, a fully modification on the final models was presented. Response surface methodology has the ability to investigate the liability of the parameters and models by the help of Desirability mode and R2 coefficient in Design Expert software. Our models in the previous works follow the style of (y=f(A,B,. . .)) and two Desirability of 0.968 and 0.996 for Paenibacillus alvei ARN63 and Bacillus... 

    Interfacial tension and wettability change phenomena during alkali-surfactant interactions with acidic heavy crude oil

    , Article Energy and Fuels ; Volume 29, Issue 2 , 2015 , Pages 649-658 ; 08870624 (ISSN) Dehghan, A. A ; Masihi, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2015
    In this work, a newly formulated sulfonate-based surfactant and two other commercial sulfate-based surfactants with the capability of tolerating harsh underground reservoir conditions, such as high-saline formation water and high temperature, were prepared. Sodium metaborate as an effective alkali compound was also used to provide alkali-surfactant combination. Interfacial tension (IFT) measurements as well as wettability examinations for different salinities and mixture conditions were performed for an extended range of the chemical concentrations. The wettability tests including both contact angle measurements and Amott cell tests were performed on saturated Berea sandstone plug samples... 

    Herschel-Bulkley rheological parameters of lightweight colloidal gas aphron (CGA) based fluids

    , Article Chemical Engineering Research and Design ; Volume 93 , 2015 , Pages 21-29 ; 02638762 (ISSN) Ziaee, H ; Arabloo, M ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Rashtchian, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institution of Chemical Engineers  2015
    The proper understanding of rheological characteristics of CGA based fluids is of crucial importance in determining the performance of the fluid, in order to maintain the most effective fluid properties for safe, efficient, and economical drilling operation. This paper presents a concise investigation on the effect of concentration of the three main components of a novel environmentally friendly lightweight CGA based drilling fluid, i.e., xanthan gum biopolymer, starch, and biosurfactant, to the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model parameters. The three parameters of Herschel-Bulkley model, i.e., yield stress, fluid consistency, and fluid flow index were calculated by fitting the experimental... 

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the inverse emulsion polymerization of acrylamide

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 132, Issue 22 , February , 2015 ; 00218995 (ISSN) Abdi, A ; Shahrokhi, M ; Ahmad Ramazani, S. A ; Vafa, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Inc  2015
    In this study, the inverse emulsion polymerization modeling of polyacrylamide with population balance equations (PBEs) was performed. The PBEs were derived on the basis of the zero-one kinetic model. The effects of the surfactant steric barrier and surfactant reaction with radicals, including monomeric radicals, on the radical entry rate into the particle were taken into account. In the modified model, the coagulation phenomenon was included through consideration of the effects of forces not included in the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory; these include hydration and steric forces in addition to DLVO forces. The effects of the surfactant and initiator concentrations on... 

    Characterization of viscous fingering during displacements of low tension natural surfactant in fractured multi-layered heavy oil systems

    , Article Chemical Engineering Research and Design ; Volume 96 , 2015 , Pages 23-34 ; 02638762 (ISSN) Arabloo, M ; Shokrollahi, A ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Rashtchian, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institution of Chemical Engineers  2015
    Characterization of viscous fingering in low tension displacements especially for heavy oil surfactant pair in heterogeneous systems is neither straight forward nor well understood. In this work layered porous models containing fractures with different geometrical properties were used and the finger behavior during displacement of LTNS, as a new EOR agent, in heavy oil was quantified. Dynamic propagation of the fingers independent to the type of heterogeneity is well correlated with the dimensionless displacement time in a linearly form. And also, the rate of finger growth is nearly independent to the type of medium heterogeneity. When injection is scheduled through high permeable region in... 

    Spotlight on kinetic and equilibrium adsorption of a new surfactant onto sandstone minerals: A comparative study

    , Article Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers ; Volume 50 , May , 2015 , Pages 12-23 ; 18761070 (ISSN) Arabloo, M ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Rashtchian, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers  2015
    This paper presents a state of the art review of adsorption models for a new plant-based surfactant adsorption onto sandstone minerals. The adsorption data at both kinetic and equilibrium modes were obtained from batch experiments. Four adsorption kinetic models, five two-parameter, and six three-parameter equilibrium models were used for interpretation of the obtained data. Among the two and three-parameter isotherm models applied, the Jovanovic and the Khan isotherms showed the best fit, respectively. And the pseudo-second order model presented a better fit than other kinetic models. Finally, a computer-based modeling approach was developed and used for predicting the kinetics of... 

    Macroscopic and microscopic investigation of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding in heavy oil recovery using five-spot micromodels: The effect of shale geometry and connatewater saturation

    , Article Journal of Porous Media ; Volume 18, Issue 8 , 2015 , Pages 745-762 ; 1091028X (ISSN) Mehranfar, A ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Masihi, M ; Rashtchian, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    Begell House Inc  2015
    Plenty of oil reservoirs contain discontinuous shale layers that act as flow barriers. Therefore, understanding their influences on reservoir performance, especially during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, is of great importance. For this purpose, several experiments of water and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding have been performed on a number of one-quarter five-spot micromodels that contain various configurations of shale layers to simulate shaly porous media. Several features, such as various shale geometrical characteristics and the presence of connate water saturation, were investigated at both macro- and micro-scales. The presence of shales resulted in earlier... 

    Pore-level experimental investigation of ASP flooding to recover heavy oil in fractured five-spot micromodels

    , Article EUROPEC 2015, 1 June 2015 through 4 June 2015 ; June , 2015 , Pages 1033-1058 ; 9781510811621 (ISBN) Sedaghat, M ; Mohammadzadeh, O ; Kord, S ; Chatzis, I ; Sharif University of Technology
    Society of Petroleum Engineers  2015
    Although Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding is proved to be efficient for heavy oil recovery, the displacement mechanisms/efficiency of this process should be discussed further in fractured porous media especially in typical waterflood geometrical configurations such as five-spot injection-production pattern. In this study, several ASP flooding tests were conducted in fractured glass-etched micromodels which were initially saturated with heavy oil. The ASP flooding tests were conducted at constant injection flow rates and different fracture geometrical characteristics were used. The ASP solutions constituted of five polymers, two surfactants and three alkaline types. The results... 

    Studying the mechanistic behavior of heavy oil displacement using a group of alkalis and surfactant mixtures

    , Article Chemical Engineering Communications ; Volume 202, Issue 3 , 2015 , Pages 366-374 ; 00986445 (ISSN) Dehghan, A. A ; Jadaly, A ; Masihi, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2015
    In this study, a mixture-based sulfonate-based surfactant with a novel formula capable of functioning in real oil reservoir conditions was prepared and some microscopic parameters, like its compatibility state, emulsion behavior, interfacial tension, and temperature dependency in the presence of a heavy oil sample, and two of the most popular alkalis were analyzed; then the results were compared with those of a commercial sulfate-based surfactant. The designed surfactant provided an optimum three-phase region in relatively high salinity media; however, its optimum value decreased when adding any alkaline materials; this trend was reversed for the solutions made with the sulfate-based... 

    Worm-like micelles:a new approach for heavy oil recovery from fractured systems

    , Article Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering ; Volume 93, Issue 5 , 2015 , Pages 951-958 ; 00084034 (ISSN) Kianinejad, A ; Saidian, M ; Mavaddat, M ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Kharrat, R ; Rashtchian, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    Wiley-Liss Inc  2015
    In this work, a new type of flooding system, "worm-like micelles", in enhanced heavy oil recovery (EOR) has been introduced. Application of these types of surfactants, because of their intriguing and surprising behaviour, is attractive for EOR studies. Fundamental understanding of the sweep efficiencies as well as displacement mechanisms of this flooding system in heterogeneous systems especially for heavy oils remains a topic of debate in the literature. Worm-like micellar surfactant solutions are made up of highly flexible cylindrical aggregates. Such micellar solutions display high surface activity and high viscoelasticity, making them attractive in practical applications for EOR. In this... 

    Surfactant effects on the efficiency of oil sweeping from the dead ends: Numerical simulation and experimental investigation

    , Article Chemical Engineering Research and Design ; Volume 94 , 2015 , Pages 173-181 ; 02638762 (ISSN) Kamyabi, A ; Ramazani, S. A. A ; Kamyabi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institution of Chemical Engineers  2015
    Highlights: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of the surfactants on the oil extraction from the dead ends through the numerical simulations and experimental evidences. The volume of fluid approach in the frame of the finite volume method has been used for numerical simulations in 2-D domain and experimental flooding tests have been done using a glassy micro-model. The effects of the water-oil, water-wall and oil-wall interfacial tensions have been investigated numerically and some results are compared to experimental flooding results. Simulations have been done in the cases of water-wet, neutralized-wet and oil-wet micro-models also. The numerical results show that in...