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    Investigation of Low Salinity Waterflooding Predictive Capability and the Development of a Tool for Screening Candidates

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Golmohammadi, Meysam (Author) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Ayatollahi, Shahab (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Among different enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, low salinity waterflooding (LSWF) has been attractive to researchers because of its relative simplicity and lower environmental problems compared to other conventional EOR methods. Numerous researchers have attempted to find the main cause of the low salinity effect (LSE). According to previous studies, several experimental techniques have been proposed for predicting LSE and screening potential field candidates. However, there is a lack of a systematic investigation of all (or even some of) the methods to compare and determine their LSE predictive capability. Predictive capability development is essential because it saves costs and time... 

    Low Salinity Water Assisted by Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery: Mechanistic Study and Spontaneous Imbibition Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Heidari, Mehdi (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahabodin (Supervisor) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques have become of the main priorities of the oil industry during the high oil price era. It is interesting to note that the common method to increase production from reservoirs is the water injection method, which recovers a very low amount of oil from the oil-wet matrices due to the lack of water imbibition. Previous studies have shown that changing the wettability of rock would critically increase the oil recovery efficiency. This could be achieved by the low-salinity water injection method. In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on this technique to evaluate its effectiveness for various types of oil reservoirs. Simultaneous injection... 

    Numerical simulation of surfactant flooding in darcy scale flow

    , Article Petroleum Science and Technology ; Vol. 32, Issue. 11 , 2014 , Pages 1365-1374 ; ISSN: 10916466 Morshedi, S ; Foroughi, S ; Beiranvand, M. S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    One of the methods that is used nowadays in enhanced oil recovery is surfactant flooding. The main mechanisms of surfactant flooding in reservoir consist of reduction of interfacial tension between water and oil and modification of rock wettability. In this study, the authors simulate the surfactant injection process in Darcy scale and in one-dimensional, multicomponent, multiphase state, and effects of physical phenomena such as adsorption, dispersion, convection, and exchange between fluids and solids are considered. Wettability alteration of reservoir rock due to presence of surfactant in injected fluid is detected in relative permeability and capillary pressure curves. First, the authors... 

    Asphaltene precipitation due to natural depletion of reservoir: Determination using a SARA fraction based intelligent model

    , Article Fluid Phase Equilibria ; Volume 354 , September , 2013 , Pages 177-184 ; 03783812 (ISSN) Hemmati Sarapardeh, A ; Alipour Yeganeh Marand, R ; Naseri, A ; Safiabadi, A ; Gharagheizi, F ; Ilani Kashkouli, P ; Mohammadi, A. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    Precipitation of asphaltene leads to rigorous problems in petroleum industry such as: wettability alterations, relative permeability reduction, blockage of the flow with additional pressure drop in wellbore tubing, upstream process facilities and surface pipelines. Experimentally determination of the asphaltene precipitation is costly and time consuming. Therefore, searching for some other quick and accurate methods for determination of the asphaltene precipitation is inevitable. The objective of this communication is to present a reliable and predictive model namely, the least - squares support vector machine (LSSVM) to predict the asphaltene precipitation. This model has been developed and... 

    Low salinity water injectionat different reservoir rocks: Similarities and differences

    , Article Special Topics and Reviews in Porous Media ; Volume 7, Issue 1 , 2016 , Pages 87-97 ; 21514798 (ISSN) Hassani, K ; Rostami, B ; Ayatollahi, S ; Yassin, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Begell House Inc  2016
    Abstract
    A literature review of laboratory and field scale studies on low salinity water (LSW) injection showed that the salinity and composition of injected water can have a significant impact on oil recovery. Historically, extensive research has been completed to understand the mechanisms and factors affecting LSW injection. However, although numerous mechanisms have been proposed to describe the interactions in the target process, none have been widely accepted. In this study, waterflooding tests were used to investigate the advantages, disadvantages, and effect of LSW injection. In laboratory tests, two different brines and crude oil of one of Iran's southern reservoirs were used to assess the... 

    Effects of low-salinity water coupled with silica nanoparticles on wettability alteration of dolomite at reservoir temperature

    , Article Petroleum Science and Technology ; Volume 34, Issue 15 , 2016 , Pages 1345-1351 ; 10916466 (ISSN) Sadatshojaei, E ; Jamialahmadi, M ; Esmaeilzadeh, F ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc 
    Abstract
    Wettability alteration in porous media is one of the mechanisms for enhancing oil recovery through injecting low-salinity water into carbonate reservoirs, in which active ions can remove the carboxylic oil component from the rock surface, altering the rock's wettability toward a water-wet condition. This study investigated the concomitant effects of low-salinity water and hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles on oil-wet dolomite rock. Results revealed that low-salinity water coupled with hydrophilic nano-SiO2 in oil-wet dolomite rock remarkably affected the wettability alteration of the rock, showing that the simultaneous presence of ions in water and hydrophilic nano-SiO2 led to considerable... 

    Low salinity injection into asphaltenic-carbonate oil reservoir, mechanistical study

    , Article Journal of Molecular Liquids ; Volume 216 , 2016 , Pages 377-386 ; 01677322 (ISSN) Lashkarbolooki, M ; Riazi, M ; Hajibagheri, F ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    The impacts of salinity adjustment of displacing fluid have recently gained special attention to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Different mechanisms have been studied widely in the literature while some of them are still subjugated to more scrutiny. The effects of diluted sea water on the interfacial properties of brine and asphaltenic-acidic crude oil and the wettability alteration of carbonate reservoir rock are investigated in this experimental observational work. The measurements of interfacial tension (IFT) and contact angle (CA) as two main parameters are studied. Besides, the effects of asphaltene and resin in the crude oil on the IFT values between the crude oil and aqueous solution... 

    Experimental investigation of inorganic scale deposition during smart water injection - A formation damage point of view

    , Article IOR NORWAY 2017 - 19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery: Sustainable IOR in a Low Oil Price World, 24 April 2017 through 27 April 2017 ; 2017 ; 9789462822092 (ISBN) Ghasemian, J ; Mokhtari, R ; Ayatollahi, S ; Riahi, S ; Malekzade, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Smart water injection is determined as an effective EOR process to change the wettability and interfacial tension for better micro/macro sweep efficiencies. This water contains reactive ions such as Mg ∧(2+), Ca ∧(2+) and SO-4 ∧(2-) which can act as potential determining ions and change the surface charge of calcite rocks. One of the major concerns in the execution of an effective waterflood, especially in tight carbonate reservoirs, is the incompatibility between the formation brine and the injecting water. This research work aims to investigate the most important challenge of waterflooding process related to the possible formation damage because of inorganic scale deposition during... 

    Investigating the synergic effects of chemical surfactant (SDBS) and biosurfactant produced by bacterium (Enterobacter cloacae) on IFT reduction and wettability alteration during MEOR process

    , Article Journal of Molecular Liquids ; Volume 256 , 2018 , Pages 277-285 ; 01677322 (ISSN) Hajibagheri, F ; Hashemi, A ; Lashkarbolooki, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2018
    Abstract
    In the current study, a novel approach which takes into account the effectiveness of both convectional surfactants and biosurfactants was investigated. The biosurfactant produced by Enterobacter cloacae strain was utilized concomitant with conventional surfactant (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)) to evaluate its capability to reduce the SDBS adsorption on rock surface (biosurfactant acts as sacrificial agent) or synergistically enhance the effectiveness of the SDBS. In this regard, the wettability alteration and interfacial tension (IFT) measurements and calculation of spreading coefficient were performed considering two different scenarios. In the first scenario, SDBS was added to... 

    The effect of nanoparticles on spontaneous imbibition of brine into initially oil-wet sandstones

    , Article Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects ; Volume 41, Issue 22 , 2019 , Pages 2746-2756 ; 15567036 (ISSN) Sobhani, A ; Ghasemi Dehkordi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2019
    Abstract
    In this paper, the effect of silica nanoparticles on oil production due to the spontaneous imbibition of brine into oil-wet sandstones has been studied. The imbibed fluids were NaCl 3 wt. % solutions containing various concentrations of nanoparticles and the recovered oil for each solution was compared. The results revealed that nanoparticles yielded more oil recovery. Nanofluid was used after brine imbibition, and the oil recovery increased from 17.8% to 40% while in the case of using the same nanofluid as the first imbibed fluid the oil recovery was 53%. Also, the results indicated that the oil recovery depends on nanoparticle concentrations. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC  

    An atomistic insight into the implications of ion-tuned water injection in wetting preferences of carbonate reservoirs

    , Article Journal of Molecular Liquids ; Volume 293 , 2019 ; 01677322 (ISSN) Koleini, M.M ; Badizad, M. H ; Ghatee, M. H ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    The efficiency of water flooding methods is known to improve by applying ion-tuned water injection. Although there is a consensus that such improvement happens through reversing reservoir wettability characteristics to more water-wet state, the true impact of ions is still ambiguous among contradictory debates. The well-known molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques would shed light on such ambiguities to gain deep atomic-scale understanding of the process. Results from MD simulations show that the presence of Na+ and Cl¯ ions leads to the formation of an electrical double layer in adjacency of calcite surface while Mg2+ ions dominantly make complexes with hydrocarbons throughout the... 

    Wettability alteration of oil-wet carbonate porous media using silica nanoparticles: Electrokinetic characterization

    , Article Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research ; Volume 58, Issue 40 , 2019 , Pages 18601-18612 ; 08885885 (ISSN) Dehghan Monfared, A ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    Abstract
    Application of nanoparticles for wettability alteration offers a practical approach to resolve some surface-related problems encountered in the nowadays technological process. Examples are underground/subsurface engineering implications, including the enhanced oil recovery from the oil-wet carbonate reservoirs. However, the common wettability evaluating techniques such as contact angle and flotation cannot be representative of the dynamic phenomena occurring at the pore scale and hence are unable to give accurate information about the process. Therefore, in the present work, the electrokinetic evaluations are utilized to explore the wettability alteration of initially oil-wet carbonate rock... 

    The stability and surface activity of environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles: the importance of hydrophobicity

    , Article Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology ; Volume 41, Issue 9 , 2020 , Pages 1299-1310 Ghaleh, V.R ; Mohammadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2020
    Abstract
    In this study, the effect of hydrophobicity of environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles on the stability and surface activity of the nanoparticles is examined. To this end, n-propyl, n-hexyl, or n-octyl chains and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) chains at various quantities were coated covalently on the surface of silica nanoparticles to regulate the hydrophobicity of the responsive nanoparticles. Various experimental tools such as stability analysis, interfacial-tension and contact-angle measurements, and emulsion formation were performed to investigate the effect of hydrophobicity. It became evident that the presence of the hydrophobic agents influences considerably... 

    Theoretical and experimental study of foam stability mechanism by nanoparticles: Interfacial, bulk, and porous media behavior

    , Article Journal of Molecular Liquids ; Volume 304 , 2020 Suleymani, M ; Ghotbi, C ; Ashoori, S ; Moghadasi, J ; Kharrat, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    Foam flooding has been applied as a promising method in enhanced oil recovery to obviate the challenges of gas flooding such as fingering, channeling and overriding. However, long-term foam stability is crucial for mobility control. In this work, the effective mechanisms on foam stability in the presence of CaCO3 nanoparticles were assessed both theoretically and experimentally. The static and dynamic behaviors of cationic surfactant (HTAB) foam in the presence of CaCO3 nanoparticles with different hydrophobicity were evaluated. The CaCO3 nanoparticles were treated with a series of long-chain fatty acids to generate a range of wettability. Afterward, the underlying mechanisms were revealed... 

    Dynamic Simulation of Wettability Alteration Induced by Low-Salinity-Effect: Study of Phenomena within Thin Water Film

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pourakaberian, Arash (Author) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Joekar Niasar, Vahid (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that the lowering of brine could alter the wettability of the oil-brine-rock systems from an oil-wetting state toward a more water-wetting state. This so-called “Low-salinity effect” (LSE) is one of the main effects of the enhanced oil recovery technology based on low-salinity waterflooding. “Double layer expansion” (DLE) in the thin brine film is proposed as the principal mechanism of this phenomenon. Nonetheless, the role of the electrical behavior of the oil/brine and rock/brine interfaces on the kinetics and dynamics of this process is not well understood. Moreover, since most of the previous works have either dealt with a thin film at... 

    Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Flow ّunction Variation in Enhanced oil Recovery Using Low Salinity/Smart Water Injection in a Carbonate Reservoir

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Farhadi, Hamed (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin (Supervisor) ; Fatemi, Mobin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Low salinity water flooding (LSWF) as an efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique is proved to affect both, fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions to potentially release the trapped oil from the porous rock. Despite more than one decade of extensive research works on the low salinity water effect (LSWE), there are still many parameters to be studied for very complex cases. Therefore, in the first part of the experimental study of the dissertation, a systematic investigation on the effect of the initial wetting state (water-wet or oil-wet) of pure calcite is conducted to study the importance of fluid/fluid and fluid/rock interactions for LSWE investigation. In the case of initially... 

    Monitoring the influence of dispersed nano-particles on oil-water relative permeability hysteresis

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Vol. 124, issue , December , 2014 , p. 222-231 ; ISSN: 09204105 Parvazdavani, M ; Masihi, M ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    In recent years, polysilicon nanoparticles are used to enhance the oil recovery through the water injection process in oilfields. The contributing mechanisms are the reduction of interfacial tension and wettability alteration which lead to improving or decreasing the oil phase relative permeability and can be traced by change of relative permeability curves. However, profound understanding of the effect of dispersed nano-silica particles on the hysteretic behavior of relative permeability curves remains a controversy topic in the literature.The current study illustrates the influence of dispersed silica particles on hysteretic trend of two-phase curves of oil-water relative permeability.... 

    Effect of time and temperature on crude oil aging to do a right surfactant flooding with a new approach

    , Article Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference ; Vol. 2, issue , 2014 , p. 1136-1142 ; ISSN: 01603663 ; ISBN: 9781632663870 Heidari, M. A ; Habibi, A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Masihi, M ; Ashoorian, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Dilute Surfactant flooding has been recognized as one of the significant processes in chemical flooding. Many oil reservoirs became appropriate candidates for surfactant/water flooding when screening criteria was developed. Injected surfactant tried to mobilize the residual oil that was trapped in interstice. The main contributing mechanism to enhance oil recovery by surfactant flooding was defined as rock wettability alteration. Wettability is one of the substantial parameters to choose the best approach for a successful surfactant flooding in which tiny change in wettability will lead to improve oil recovery fundamentally. In this experimental study the effect of different aging time and... 

    Investigation of wettability alteration through relative permeability measurement during MEOR process: A micromodel study

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Vol. 120, issue , 2014 , p. 10-17 Khajepour, H ; Mahmoodi, M ; Biria, D ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) as a tertiary process employs microorganisms and their metabolites to reduce the residual oil saturation of the reservoir mainly through interfacial tension (IFT) reduction and wettability alteration. In spite of its great potential and the mentioned advantages, application of MEOR has been limited because of the lack of practical convincing experimental results. In this study, the effects of MEOR process on wettability changes and the reduction of residual oil saturation have been examined by providing microscopic visualization of two phase flow in transparent glass micromodels. Biosurfactant producing bacterial strain (Enterobacter cloacae) was... 

    Application of biosurfactants to wettability alteration and IFT reduction in enhanced oil recovery from oil-wet carbonates

    , Article Petroleum Science and Technology ; Volume 31, Issue 12 , Jul , 2013 , Pages 1259-1267 ; 10916466 (ISSN) Biria, D ; Maghsoudi, E ; Roostaazad, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    To obtain potentially applicable microorganisms to an effective in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery operation, bacteria that were compatible with the harsh conditions of a petroleum reservoir were isolated from a crude oil sample. The application of an oil spreading technique showed that all of the isolates were capable of producing biosurfactants from both the glucose and crude oil as carbon sources. The secreted biosurfactants could at least reduce the surface tension 20 mN/m and for one of the isolates; the surface tension value dropped below 40 mN/m. In addition, the contact angle measurements revealed that the produced biosurfactants could effectively alter the wettability of the...