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    Surveying Philosophical Arguments on "Origination of The Universe" based on the views of: W.L.Craig, Q.Smith and Allamah S.M.H Al-Tabatabaie

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zare, Roozbeh (Author) ; Hosseini, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The problem of Origination of The Universe is one of the most important issues in the history of philosophy whether in western edition or in Islamic thought. The most problematic aspect of the Origination is Temporal Origination. From about 30 years ago as a result of the works of a famous American philosopher William Lane Craig, the debate between temporality and Eternity of the Universe became a fresh topic in western philosophy. In this research we want to survey the philosophical arguments for and against the temporality of the Universe based on the views of: W.L.Craig, Q.Smith and Allamah S.M.H Al-Tabatabaie.
     

    The Evolution of a Geometric Space in in the Nineteenth Century

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karimi, Ehsan (Author) ; Shahshahani, Siavash (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The meaning and the nature of space and it’s essential properties seems to be one of the oldest problems which has been continuing to occupy human’s mind during centuries. It can be counted as a common ground between philosophy, mathematics, physics and even art. However this thesis concentrates on the philosophical and mathematical attitudes, neglecting the other aspects of the issue. Prima facie, it appears that the concept of space is essentially mingled with geometry, the science which seems to investigate the essentials of space. Taking it for granted, Kant regarded space, and so Euclidean geometry which dominates it, as an indispensible and necessary structure of the human’s mind.... 

    A Critical Investigation of Concept and Situation of Time, Information and Entropy in Thermodynamics and their Relation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jamali, Mohammad (Author) ; Golshani, Mehdi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    One of the important issues in the fundamental physics is the arrow of time. According to the fundamental theories, motion is symmetry with respect to the passage of time while on a macroscopic level time has direction. In the macroscopic models the arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics.The thermodynamic arrow is often linked to the cosmological arrow of time, because it is ultimately about the boundary conditions of the early universe.Recently people have tried to suppose this challenge as a fundamental issue and use this as fundamental assumption in their theories.A number of models have attempted to solve the problem based on the concept of information.... 

    Analysis of Time-Modality Relationship in Diodorus Cronus Master Argument from the Viewpoint of Modern Logic

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Barzegar, Ali (Author) ; Nabavi, Lotfollah (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Diodorus Cronus, the Megaric Logician, in an attempt to define possibility and necessity, formulated an argument which after him was known as Diodorus Cronus Master Argument. According to extant historical accounts, Master Argument consists of three premises which according to Diodorus form an inconsistency, so that results in the rejection of Aristotelian notion of possibility and establishment of determinism. But the argument itself i.e. how three premises of the Master Argument form an inconsistency, has been lost. Therefore a number of logicians has decided to reconstruct the Master Argument and thereby reveal its inner structure in order to evaluate its validity.
    On the other hand,... 

    Expounding the Meaning of Time in Evolutionary Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Arami Manesh, Saber (Author) ; Shafiee, Afshin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The question of the time is one of the obscure and challenging subjects which has been discussed as a mysterious problem in various civilizations. In ancient Greece, the question has been debated among the supporters of existence and eternity. We observe the words of Plato, on the existence of the absolute essence of eternity against the change and transition time instantiated as a conducted river in the Heraclitus view. Other discussions focused on the relationship between the change and displacement, or the the spatial relations to which Aristotle paid attention. With the passing of time from the ancient and medieval eras to the Renaissance period, along with the growth of the science in... 

    A Survey on the Notion of Time in Quantum Mechanics from both Theoretical and Experimental Perspectives

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Triverdi, Javad (Author) ; Shafiee, Afshin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This project examines time in quantum mechanics, which includes three chapters. The first chapter is about clocks, which first deals with the history and invention of clocks, and then goes on to describe quantum clocks and various theories about them, including Perez and Faraday quantum clocks . The second chapter deals with the two-slit Yang experiments which, as in the preceding chapter, we first give a historical description of the experiment, and we will continue with our description. We consider that for each of these cases the probability of spatial and linear momentum interference is calculated. The third chapter is the final chapter. In this section, we first discuss the concept of...