Search for: evaporation
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    Experimental Study of Drying and Calcination of Simulated High-Level Waste (HLW)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Farahzadi, Zahra (Author) ; Samadfam, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Zahakifar, Fazel (Supervisor) ; Zaheri, Parisa (Co-Supervisor)
    One of the novel methods of stabilization of nuclear waste is the use of vitrification technology. In order to stabilize high level wastes (HLLW) in glass, it is required that the elements are in their oxide form. Therefore, it is necessary to evaporate the waste and turn it into a solid form so that the elements can be converted into oxide form in the calcination furnace. Hence, one of the challenges of stabilization is the optimization of evaporation and calcination conditions. In this research, the parameters affecting evaporation were first investigated. Using laboratory measurements of application: temperature (110 to 180 °C), presence of nitric acid (0.5 to 4 mol/L), ratio of zirconium... 

    Estimating the Amount of Evaporation, Salinity, Precipitation and Dissolution of Salt on Lake Urmia

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad (Author) ; Tajrishy, Masoud (Supervisor)
    Lake Urmia is the largest hypersaline lake in Iran, as well as a significant aquatic habitat. In recent decades, extreme increasing of extent plans and exploitation of water resources in this basin, cause decreasing inflow, water level and creating several environmental and economic issues. In recent decades, the excessive expansion in the development and exploitation of this basin's water resources has resulted in a drop in the flows into the lake, a decline in the lake's water level, and the creation of several environmental and economic issues. In recent years, these stressors have caused the lake's salinity to exceed 400 g/L, and salt deposits have emerged on the lake bottom and... 

    (Comparing Empirical Methods of Evaporation in Hypersaline Lakes Utilizing Energy Balance Method (The Case of Urmia Lake,Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jahanbani, Sima (Author) ; Tajrishy, Masoud (Supervisor)
    Evaporation is the initial process of losing water and heat from the surface of the lake. There are six well-known methods for estimating the evaporation of water from surface water including: the water balance method,the energy balance method, themass transfer methods, the combined mass transfer and energy balance method, the empirical equation and using pan evaporation. In this thesis, evaporation has been calculated with using different equations, in-site observation and remote sensing data. These results also have been compared with the results of the energy balance method. In addition, we have developed modified empirical equations of fresh water evaporation estimation with the... 

    Modelling Evaporation & Salinity Variation in Saline Lakes Using Spatial System Dynamics: The Case of Urmia Lake

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Sima, Somayeh (Author) ; Tajrishy, Masoud (Supervisor)
    Evaporation is the most important water loss from terminal lakes which can influence the chemistry of lakes. In large lakes, the spatial distributions of meteorological and water quality variables affect the evaporation rates. Therefore, it is crucial to consider such variations in estimating evaporation rates from large lakes. This study aims at developing an evaporation estimation model for saline lakes considering salinity and spatial distribution of variables in/over the lakes and investigating the interaction between meteorological, hydrological and water quality variables in natural saline systems. To accomplish these objectives, first a distributed model was developed for estimating... 

    Evaluation of Data Mining in Salinity Prediction and Evaporation Estimation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mahjoobi, Emad (Author) ; Agha Mohammad Hossein Tajrishi, Massoud (Supervisor)
    Since physical variables are almost dependent, uncertain and have significant time and spatial changes, nature of hydrological and environmental systems is so complicated, nonlinear and dynamic. Many models have been developed for studying and analyzing various phenomena in these systems. Recently data mining approaches have been used as new methods for modeling of complicated engineering systems. In this study, performance of several data mining tools in analyzing two phenomena in water quality management have been evaluated. These algorithms are Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) in the field of Artificial... 

    Numerical Investigation of Dewetting of Evaporating thin Films over Nanometric Topography

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Akbarzadeh, Amir Mahdi (Author) ; Moosavi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Evaporation and condensation of thin films can rupture or stabilize thin film .We show that evaporation hastens dewetting of a thin film. Dewetting over nanometric downward step causes pinning of the contact line near the step. This phenomena is not permanent and after certain time that contact angle reaches to its critical value depinnnig happens. We also study the effect of the step size, contact angle, film thickness, slip and evaporation on the depinning time of the contact line. We show that depinnig time has a reverse relation with the rate of evaporation  

    nvestigation of the Effects of Evaporation, Inlet Momentum, and Spacer on the Transport and Deposition of Pharmaceutical Particles Delivered by a Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) in Human Upper Airways

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Noormandipoor, Mojtaba (Author) ; Saeedi, Mohammad Saeed (Supervisor)
    In this study the transport and deposition of pharmaceutical particles delivered by a commercial metered dose inhaler (MDI) is investigated in a combination of human upper airways, inhaler, and spacer. The emphasis of the present work is on the effects of evaporation of ethanol from particles, inlet momentum of particles, and use of spacer on their transport and deposition phenomena. The pharmaceutical particles are typically delivered with high initial momentum to human upper airways. It is believed that this initial momentum is responsible for increased undesirable deposition of particles in upper airways, especially in case of particles larger than 1 micrometer in diameter. In the present... 

    Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Annular Flow in Horizontal Tubes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Harati, Mohammad Ali (Author) ; Nouri Borujerdi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Two-phase flows are widely used in petrochemical industry, chemical processes, boilers, nuclear reactors, cooling systems and air conditioning equipment. Since the problem of earth’s ozone layer and global warming, the analysis of flow characteristics in evaporators are necessary to improve performance of refrigerating systems and saving the environment. Most of the researchers have been studied the evaporation of two phase flow refrigerant through experimental studies and numerical analysis has less attention in the literature. In this Thesis, a mathematical model based on the two-phase separated flow model is developed to simulate the evaporation of pure refrigerant under constant heat... 

    Nanoparticles and Surfactants Complex Effects on Water Evaporation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Behnejhad Takleh, Katayoun (Author) ; Bastani, Dariush (Supervisor) ; Jvadi, Aliyar (Supervisor)
    Interest in the study of evaporation of liquid droplets is associated with a variety of practical applications, ranging from fuel burning and intensification of heat and mass transfer processes to formation of nanostructures. The study of the evaporation of liquid droplets is a fundamental problem, and it is the subject of a large number of works. However, in droplet evaporation processes, there are still many fundamental issues requiring more in-depth studies. In this study, the effect of the presence of hydrophilic silica nanoparticles and cationic (CTAB), anionic (SDS) and nonionic (TX-100) surfactants separately and in combination on the evaporation rate of water in a pendant droplet... 

    CFD-Modeling and Simulation of Droplets Evaporation With a Size Distribution Function

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pirhadi, Zahra (Author) ; Farhadi, Fatollah (Supervisor)
    Injecting several droplets with a known size distribution function in the hot gas environment makes droplets smaller because of evaporation or reaction. Droplets lifetime specification is important in vapor-liquid interactive processes such as chemical or process industries. In previous works, different approximate semi-empirical methods are developed to specify droplets lifetime without considering their size distribution. In this work, governing equations is studiedconsidering a size distribution function for droplets. There is not any analytical method for solving this set of equations, so numerical methods using CFD packages such as Fluent, are applicable in these cases. In this study,...