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    Study of Phase Behavior and Economical Investigation on Transportation Of LNG and LPG Mixture

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mashhadi Ebrahim, Amir (Author) ; Badakhshan, Amir (Supervisor) ; Taghikhani, Vahid (Supervisor) ; Ghotbi, Siroos (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Many technologies should be applied for transportation or consumption of natural gas. There are many different ways for transporting natural gas from origin of production to the location of consumption which the simplest way is transportation via pipelines but for transportation of natural gas for long distances, we can not use this method in this way we should apply other technologies such as converting the natural gas to the liquid state. For using this method, first we should liquefy the natural gas up to -162 degree of centigrade at the atmospheric pressure and then transport it with large cargo ships. By using this method, the transportation costs are decreased in compared with the... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Boushehrian, Ahmad (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Loads from laterally spreading ground have been a major cause of damages to pile foundations in past earthquakes. Analysis of case histories have shown that damages are particularly intense when a nonliquefiable surface crust layer spreads laterally over underling liquefied layers. In this research the effect of lateral spreading due to liquefaction on single piles embede in a gently sloping ground has been investigated. Finite element method using OpenSees is used to model the pile and embedded soil. The soil profile for all models consisted of a nonliquefiable crust layer overlying loose sand with Dr = 30-35% overlying dense sand with Dr = 70-80%. The effect of geometric properties such as... 

    Dynamic Analysis of Pile Foundations Embedded in Liquefiable Soils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahmani, Amin (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The behavior of pile foundations under earthquake loading is an important issue that affects the performance of structures. Design procedures have been developed for evaluating pile behavior under earthquake loading; however, the application of these procedures to cases involving liquefiable ground is uncertain. The performance of piles in liquefied soil layers is much more complex than that of non-liquefying soil layers because not only the superstructure and the surrounding soil exert different dynamic loads on pile, but also the stiffness and shear strength of surrounding soil diminishes over time due to both non-linear behavior of soil and pore water pressure generation. In this... 

    Assessment of Effectivness of Compaction Improvement for Liquefaction Mitigation of Saturated Sand Deposits Based on Performance Levels of Shallow Foundations

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Shahir, Hadi (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor) ; Ghannad, Mohammad Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Settlement and tilt of structures due to liquefaction of subsoil layers is a major cause of damage during earthquake. One of the main approaches to reduce terrible effects of liquefaction on shallow foundations is ground improvement. Among the variety of ground improvement methods, the densification-based methods have been more paid attention for liquefaction mitigation. For liquefaction hazard mitigation using densification methods, three basic values should be determined i.e. depth, lateral extent, and degree of improvement (percent increase in Dr). In the current design practice, the need for ground improvement is usually decided based on the semi-empirical methods for assessment of... 

    Effects of Static Shear Stress on Liquefaction Strength of Babolsar Sand Investigated under Cyclic Simple Shear and Static Triaxial Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohammadi, Morteza (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Soil liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soil loses much of its strength or stiffness for a generally short time but nevertheless long enough for liquefaction to be the cause of many losses. Thus, many researchers have worked on the factors which affect this phenomenon. Effects of initial static shear stress on liquefaction strength of loose and medium dense Babolsar sand specimens were investigated in this study. Babolsar sand is fine to medium uniform sand classified as SP in USCS. Tests were performed with cyclic simple shear and static triaxial devices. All tests were performed under consolidated undrained conditions. Cyclic simple shear tests were performed under constant vertical... 

    Physical Modeling of Effect of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading on Single Piles

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Torabi, Hooman (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Pile foundations suffered severe damages during the past earthquakes in all around the world. These damages were more severe in laterally spreading grounds and they mostly have been observed in gently sloping grounds and coastal areas. In these cases, Pile foundations not only are subjected to structures inertial loads and kinematic loads of liquefied soil but also lateral spreading intensifies damages. Thus, in the recent decade, several researches have been conducted to investigate the behavior of pile foundations in liquefiable and laterally spreading grounds, however, some uncertainties still remain in modeling of soil-pile interaction. In this study, the effects of liquefaction- induced... 

    Numerical Simulation of Ground Displacement Induced by Lateral Spreading Phenomenon

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghasemifare, Omid (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The lateral movement of a liquefiable layer on gently slopes is the most visible and devastating type of liquefaction-induced ground failure. Occurrence of liquefaction in sloping ground causes large deformations on ground surface, which may lead to several meters in some cases. Recent earthquakes have shown that this phenomenon causes severe damages to coastal structures, piers of bridges and life-lines, by exerting large lateral forces. In this research, a fully coupled two-dimensional dynamic analysis has been used to simulate the lateral spreading phenomenon and to evaluate the magnitude of deformations occurred in liquefiable soils. The critical state bounding surface elastic-plastic... 

    Dynamic Analysis and Liquefaction Evaluation of Earth Dams, Mahabad Dam case Study

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Fallah Moshfeghi, Sogol (Author) ; Jafarzadeh, Fardin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction due to the earthquake loading is one of the most important threats in the earth structure. Analysis of liquefaction of structures such as dam/foundation systems utilizing numerical methods such as finite difference and finite element, can considerably determine the real response of the structures during strong ground motions. Mahabad rockfill dam, located in upper vicinity of Mahabad city, in North-West of Iran, completed and impounded in 1970. This embankment dam was designed as a zoned dam with a slightly inclined impervious clay core and 47.5 m in height. Studying such structures, which have been designed with simple methods in olden times, can recognize the potential risks... 

    Physical Modeling of Group Pile Response to Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading by Shaking Table Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Asefzadeh, Arian (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In recent earthquakes piles have been severely damaged due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. Liquefaction causes lateral spreading in gently sloped saturated soft granular soils, leading to significant damage in structures and deep foundations. Although in recent years many studies have focused on different aspects of this phenomenon, the complex nature of the dynamic interaction between piles and liquefied soil is not yet fully understood. Thus more studies in this regard is inevitable. The present research focuses on the discussion and analysis of two large scale shaking table tests of 2x2 and 3x3 group piles. A three layer soil profile was used for the model, consisting of one... 

    Evaluate of Undrained Behavior of Uncompacted Gravely Soil With Triaxial Apparatus Under Anisotropic Condition

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bozorgi, Arash (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The study of the behavior of gravelly soil in undrained condition has been a major topic for researchers for decades. Liquefaction in gravelly soils in recent earthquake has exposed the importance and necessity of investigation on undrained the behavior of gravely soils in earthquakes. In this research, undrained behavior of gravely soils and the effects of initial static shear stress on their behavior have been investigated. In this experimental research a gravelly soil (GP) performed and a triaxial apparatus is used. All tests are performed under consolidated undraiend condition and the specimens are prepared by wet tamping method. The diameter of the specimen was 10 cm and the height was... 

    Evaluation of the Steady State and Liquefaction Potential of Gravelly Soils By Static Triaxial Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Payan, Meghdad (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Gravelly soils are among the ones that can be found all over the world and have been investigated by many researchers in recent years. Although many investigations have been performed to clarify the behaviour of these soils, but still there are a lot of shortge of information about the steady state and liquefaction potential of them. In this research, to verify the behaviour of gravelly soils, static triaxial apparatus has been used. The tests performed in this research are devided into 2 groups: Consolidated Undrained tests (CU) and Consolidated Drainedtests(CD). In group 1 tests, all 4 parameters involving gradation, relative density, isotropic pressure and anisotropy of consolidation... 

    An Investigation on the Effects of Liquefaction Induced Lateral Spreading on Deep Foundations and Development of Mitigation Measures Using 1g Shake Table Tests

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kavand, Ali (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor) ; Rahmani, Iraj (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction induced lateral spreading is defined as the lateral displacement of mildly sloping grounds or those ending in free faces as a result of liquefaction in subsurface soil layers. Damages imposed by lateral spreading on pile foundations supporting different types of structures such as ports, bridges and buildings are usually observed in large earthquakes. These potential damages are of high degree of importance in southern and northern coastal areas of Iran where several ports and critical facilities are located. River banks all over the country where bridge piers exist are also among the areas prone to potential damages. Evaluation of the effects of lateral spreading on existing... 

    Numerical Study of the Effect of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading on a group of piles

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Dehnavi, Alireza (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The behavior of pile foundations under earthquake loading is an important issue that affects the performance of structures. Design procedures have been developed for evaluating pile behavior under earthquake loading; however, the application of these procedures to cases involving liquefiable ground is uncertain. The performance of piles in liquefied soil layers is much more complex than that of non-liquefying soil layers because not only the superstructure and the surrounding soil exert different dynamic loads on pile, but also the stiffness and shear strength of surrounding soil diminishes over time due to both non-linear behavior of soil and pore water pressure generation. In this... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Padash, Hadi (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    During the past earthquakes in all over the world, the piles have had serious damages in soils with liquefaction potential. During an earthquake, liquefaction occurs in some parts of ground with mild slope and saturated and soft granular soil. Afterwards lateral spreading induced by liquefaction incurs irreparable damages on structures and piles particularly. Observing these damages, the researchers and engineers have conducted more surveys and investigations to studying the behavior of piles in granular soils with liquefaction potential and also interactions between  soil  and pile.  In  these  researches,  they have  modeled  the  interactions between  soil  and pile.  However  there are ... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Seyfi, Sahand (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral spreading is a common mode of earthquake-induced failure that usually occurs as a result of liquefaction in gently sloped sandy layers. Numerical simulation of this phenomenon requires fully coupled analysis of displacement of solid sand particles and pore water pressure under seismic loading. Predicting occurrence of initial liquefaction and sub-sequent ground movement requires employing an efficient and robust constitutive model that can predict the undrained behavior of saturated sand under different conditions. In this study, a fully coupled finite element code “PISA” utilizing a critical state two-surface plasticity constitutive model, proposed by Manzari and Dafalias (1997),... 

    Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Pile Foundations in Non-homogeneous Liquefiable Soils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghaffaripour, Omid (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The behavior of pile foundations during earthquakes is one of the most important factors that affect the performance of structures. Therefore, a large number of studies have been performed on the behavior of pile foundations under dynamic loading. A lot of procedures for the analysis and design of piles under earthquake loading have been developed, especially after the earthquakes which took place in 1964 in Niigata and Alaska. They introduced two major mechanisms for the failure of pile foundations in liquefiable grounds: Bending mechanism and buckling mechanism.In this research the focus is the evaluation of pile failure under buckling mechanism. A fully coupled three-dimensional dynamic... 

    Comparison of Constitutive Laws for Numerical Simulation of Soil Liquefaction Phenomenon

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Iranmanesh, Mohammad Ali (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction is one of the probable consequences of earthquake in soil layers of saturated loose sands. Various aspects of liquefaction have been investigated using different methods of field, laboratory, and numerical studies. Numerical simulation of liquefaction constitutes a major part of these researches. A proper constitutive law must be implemented in the numerical analysis for modeling the complicated behavior of saturated sands during dynamic loading. Simplicity of formulation, limited number of parameters and good performance are the main features of a proper constitutive law. In this study, Endochronic model for simulating liquefaction has been introduced. This model is implemented... 

    Numerical Study on the Effects of Liquefaction Induced Lateral Spreading on Rigid Waterfront Structures

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Khosrojerdi, Mahsa (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral Spreading, which usually occurs as a consequence of liquefaction in gently sloped loose saturated sand layers, is known to be a major source of earthquake-induced damages to structures such as bridge piers, quay walls, pipelines and highway/railway. Therefore, evaluation of liquefaction potential and using appropriate methods for prediction of the adverse events of lateral spreading is of great importance. In this study, numerical modeling has been used to study of lateral spreading phenomenon behind rigid waterfront structures. In order to perform a numerical modeling of lateral spreading and also designing the structures exposed to its effects, the interaction of the soil solid... 

    Liquefaction Effects on (a) Individual and Group of Capless Piles and (b) Group of three Piles under Real and Artificial Earthquakes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sabouri, Marjan (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the areas where the soil beneath the foundation is made of loose to semi-consolidated sand or noncohesive silts, Buildings and bridges are usually built on the pile foundations. One important issue that must be considered in the design of piles in saturated sandy soils, is liquefaction potential of saturated sandy soil under earthquake loads. During the earthquake, saturated sandy soil faces the sudden loss of shear strength in other word it liquifies . Liquefied Soil acts like a viscous fluid. This behaviour considerably increases the soil deformation and consequently the widespread disruption of soil layers, causes large deformation and applies great amount of forces on the piles... 

    Effects of Liquefaction on 2×2 and 3×3 Stiff and Flexible Pile Groups

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Goudarzi, Anahita (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction has a profound effect on buildings, bridges, buried pipes and other engineering structures. This phenomenon can lead to the sliding of huge earth masses, submersion and bending of substantial structures, uplift of buried light structures and collapse of retaining walls. In recorded earthquakes, liquefaction has caused major damage to structures and deep foundations, proving that pile foundations are not designed to withstand at liquefaction condition. Considerable damages in pile foundations due to liquefaction in destructive earthquakes has called for extensive study and research concerning the behavior and response of piles under the influence of liquefaction, resulting in...