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    Oxidation Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using TiO2-based Photocatalysts

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ostovar, Abdollah (Author) ; Khorasheh, Farhad (Supervisor) ; Larimi, Afsaneh Sadat (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Due to the increasing consumption of fuel, the use of new methods with high efficiency to remove sulfur from fossil fuels is felt more than ever. Hydrogenation and oxidation of sulfur organic matter, such as thiophenes, is an old method of desulfurization of liquid fuels. Using a photocatalyst, everything can be done in an environment that is very low cost. In this study, the photocatalytic elimination of dibenzothiophene was investigated. For this purpose, carbon-doped thiamine dioxide was used as the photocatalytic base, which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. This method is the same source of titanium and carbon. To increase the performance of the catalyst, platinum metal was loaded... 

    Kinetics Modeling of Platinum Leaching from Reforming Spent Catalysts by iodine/iodide Solution

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rashidi Moghaddam, Hamed (Author) ; Baghalha, Morteza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Platinum is one of the most used catalysts in refining and petrochemical industries. Also, Platinum uses in other industries like automobile catalytic convertor. As respect to importance of Platinum in these industries, growth of its consumption in recent decades and its very high price, recovery of Platinum is essential. Hence, many of various methods including hydro-metallurgy are applied. In despite of these wide spreading experimental investigations, due to low information about the reactions and the nature of reaction products, a few investigations were done on kinetics of Platinum recovery. A new method that used iodine solution to extract Platinum from spent reforming catalysts was... 

    Synthesis, Characterization and Optical Study of a New Heterobinuclear Bis(Cyclometalated) Complex Containing Pt(II) and Au(I)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Naseri, Soroush (Author) ; Jamali, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The bis-cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes [Pt(ptpy)2], 3, and [Pt(fppy)2], 4, in which, ptpy = 2-(p-tolyl)pyridine and fppy = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine have been prepared. The reaction of 3 with one equiv [Au(PPh3)]+ (prepared from the reaction between AuCl(PPh3) and AgOTf) gave the heterobinuclear complex [Pt(ptpy)2Au(PPh3)].OTf, 5, by formation of a Pt→Au dative bond. The structure of all complexes were characterized using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy in solution phase and the structures of 4 and 5 determined using X-ray crystallography in solid state. The structure of heterobinuclear complex 5 shows an unusual Pt-Au bond that supported by Au-Cipso bond. The absorption and... 

    Synthesis, Characterization and Emission Study of Bis-cyclometalated Platinum(II) Complexes Containing 2-Phenylpyridine Ligand and its Derivatives

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rajabi, Sheida (Author) ; Jamali, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The bis(cyclometalated) platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(ppy)(p′py)], in which ppy = p′py = 2-(p-tolyl)pyridine, 6; ppy = 2-(3-bromophenyl)pyridine, p′py = 2-(p-tolyl)pyridine, 7; ppy = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine, p′py = 2-(p-tolyl)pyridine, 8; ppy = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine, p′py = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine, 9, have been prepared from the reaction of the cyclometalated platinum(II) complex [Pt(ppy)Me(SMe2)] with one equiv p′py and one equiv B(C6F5)3. The structure of 6, 7 and 10 determined using X-ray crystallography in solid state. However NMR spectroscopy methods have been used for structural characterization of the complexes in solution phase. The bis(cyclometalated)... 

    Synthesis and Study of Emission Properties Of Binuclear Platinum and Silver Complexes by Bridging Ligands of Phthalazine and Bis (Diphenylphosphino) Methane

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Amini, Samira (Author) ; Jamali, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Silver(I) complex of [Ag2(μ-dppm)2(μ-phth)(phth)](BF4)2 (1) (dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and phth = phthalazine) has been prepared from the reaction of [Ag(CH3CN)4]BF4 with phthalazine and dppm in a 1:1 molar ratio. The structure of 1 was determined using X-ray crystallography in solid state and by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy in solution. Complex 1 shows a dynamic process including rotation of phthalazine ligand around the [Ag2(μ-dppm)2] unit wich was investigated by 1H NMR, 31P NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Also, the complex 1 shows the aggregation induced emission (AIE) probably by restriction of internal motions (RIM). The trimethyl platinum(IV) complex [PtMe3(phth)3]+X- (2)... 

    Synthesis and Characterization of Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes Containing 2-Vinylpyridine Ligand

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kamyar Khaledi, Niloufar (Author) ; Jamali, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The cyclometalated platinum(II) complex [Pt(Me)(bhq)(2-vpy)], 2, in which bhq = benzo{h}quinolone, 2-vpy = 2-vinylpyridine, has been prepared by reaction of the cyclometalated complex [Pt(Me) bhq)(SMe2)], 1 with one equiv 2-vinylpyridine. The similar complex [Pt(p-tolyl)(ppy)(2-vpy)], 3 in which ppy = 2-phenyl pyridine, has been prepared from reaction of the platinum(II) complex cis-[Pt(p-MeC6H4)2(SMe2)2] with one equiv 2-phenylpyridine and one equiv 2-vinylpyridine. Reaction of 2 with one equiv Br2 in acetone gave the cyclometalated platinum(IV) complex [Pt(bhq)Me(Br)(NC5H4CHCH2Br)], 4. The structure of the complexes 1-3 were determined using NMR Spectroscopy. The crystal structure of 3... 

    Synthesis and Characterization of Heterobinuclear Cyclometalated Complexes Containing Small Bite Angle Bridging Ligand

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghazfar, Reza (Author) ; Jamali, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The heteronuclear complexes [MePt(bhq)(μ-dppy)Au(PPh3)]PF6, 2, [MePt(bhq)(dppy)Tl]PF6, 3 and [Me2Pt2(bhq)2(dppy)2Tl]PF6, 4 in which bhq=benzo{h}quinoline and dppy=2-diphenylphosphinopyridine, were prepared by reaction of the mononuclear complex [MePt(bhq)(dppy)] 1 with 1 equivAuCl(PPh3), 1equiv TlPF6 and 1/2 equiv TlPF6 respectively. All the complexes were fully characterized using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS spectrometry. In addition molecular structures of complexes 2 and 3 in solid state have been determined by X-ray crystallography that shown strong dative bonds between platinum and gold or thallium atoms. As shown by ESI-MS spectrometry, the Pt-Au bond in complex 2... 

    Synthesis and Characterization of New Bis(N-heterocyclic) Carbene Platinum (II) Complexes: Study of Stability and Reactivity in C-H Activation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hoseinmardi, Sussan (Author) ; Jamali, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Preparation of two new Bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (Bis-NHC) platinum (ІІ) complexes have been described. The reaction of the Bis-NHC complex [PtMe2(Bis-NHC)], 1, in which Bis-NHC = 1,1’-methylene-3,3’-di(tert-Bu)imidazole ylidene, with two equivalent trifluoroacetic acid give the new Bis-NHC platinum [Pt(Bis-NHC)(CF3COO)2], 2. Complex 2 has been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy in solution and its solid state structure determined using X-ray crystallography. The mono-methyl Bis-NHC platinum(ІІ) complex, {PtMe(Bis-NHC)[OHB(C6F5)3]}, 3, has been prepared by the reaction of one equivalent B(C6F5)3 with [PtMe2(Bis-NHC)], 1. The mono-methyl complex 1 has a labile ligand... 

    Synthesis, and Characterization of Binuclear Platinum (IV)with Coinage Metals

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Abbasi Kamran, Ehsan (Author) ; Jamali, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this research binuclear platinum(IV) complexes with coinage metals have been synthesized and characterized. the trimethyl platinum(IV) complex [PtMe3(phthalazine)3]+X- has been prepared by the reaction of [PtMe3(THF)]4 with 3 equiv. phthalazine and used as initial material. The first complex, [PtMe3(µ-(phthalazine)2Cl)PtMe3], synthesized via reaction of 2 equiv. [Pt(Me)3(Phthalazine)3] with 1 equiv. [AuClSMe2]. The second complex, [PtMe3(µ-phthalazine)3Ag][BF4], synthesized by reaction of one equiv. of each compound [Ag(CH3CN)4]BF4 and [Pt(Me)3(Phthalazine)3] And the third complex, [PtMe3(µ-phthalazine)3Cu][PF6], synthesized like second one via reaction of [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 and... 

    Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles and Study on its Application as a Catalyst and an Adsorbent of the Radioactive Elements

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mehdizadeh, Sofia (Author) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Ahmadi, Javad (Supervisor) ; Sadjadi, Sodeh (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    The present study was aimed at investigating the use of platinum and platinum nanoparticles stabilized on zeolite as catalyst for the reduction reaction of p-nitrotoluene as one of the dangerous pollutants. The adsorption properties of platinum based on zeolite have been studied for some heavy metals. Monodispersed platinum nanoparticles were synthesized through reduction of H2PtCl6 by ethanol in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer, and then were immobilized on four types of zeolites. The study then focused on elaboration of the catalytic activity of the nano catalysts under different operational conditions. In order to investigate the catalytic properties, operating... 

    Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles Modified by Several Transition Metals and Investigation of their Effects on Degradation Kinetics of Dye

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kaboli, Zeynab (Author) ; Gholami, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this project, TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol gel method. The band gap of TiO2 was modified with transition metal ions Pt, Pd, Ni. The kinetics and photocatalytic degradation of AB92 investigated. The effect of some parameters such as pH and amount of photocatalysis and calcination tempreture were examined. Also effect of transition metal increase on surface morphology and photocatalytic activity were investigated by XRD, BET, SEM, DRS and FT-IR Techniques. Dyes are an abundant class of colored organic compounds that represent and increasing environmental danger. Azo dyes are well-known carcinogenic organic substances. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been proposed as... 

    Electrodepositon of Platinum Nanotubes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yousefi, Elahe (Author) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Platinum nanotubes were deposited inside the pores of polycarbonate template with the pore size of 200 nm by electrochemical methods. In this regard a solution containing of 0.05 M H2PtCl6 and 0. 1 M H2SO4 in doubly distilled water was utilized. The electrodeposition process was studied by electrochemical techniques such as voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. It was observed that the process was conducted in several stages including; nucleation and growth in steady state regime. Furthermore, it was concluded that electrodeposition was affected by mass transport restriction and was controlled by a diffusion process. In this regard, all the voltammograms were shifted to more negative... 

    Synthesis and Evaluation of a Three-Way Catalyst for CO, Hydrocarbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emission Control in CNG-Fueled Vehicles

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Esperi, Melika (Author) ; Hamzehlouyan, Tayebeh (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    According to the reports of the Tehran Air Quality Control Company, mobile sources are responsible for the emission of 70-85% of air pollutant in this metropolis. Over the past decades, compressed natural gas (CNG) is known as a cleaner fuel and a suitable alternative to gasoline and diesel fuels in the transportation section in some countries. However, methane emissions from natural gas vehicles is a significant challenge because it is a potent greenhouse gas and plays important role in global warming. In addition, because of another pollutant emissions from these vehicles, exhaust gas treatment is a crucial issue. Using Three-Way catalysts (TWC) is the conventional method in order to... 

    Electrodeposition of Pt nanostructures and its Application as Glucose Sensor

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mahshid, Sahar Sadat (Author) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The present work describes sensing application of modified Pt nanostructures towards detection of glucose. Modified Pt nanostructured electrodes were prepared using electrodeposition method such as chronoampermetry and potentiostatic pulse methods. The electrodeposition of Pt nanostructures was first studied by voltammetry and amperommetry techniques and then potentiostatic pulse method has been used to produce the alloyed structures of platinum. In this regard, the first electrode was proposed based on alloyed Pt/Ni nanowire arrays (NWAs) for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. The Pt/Ni NWAs were prepared by pulse electrodeposition of Pt and Ni within a nano-pore polycarbonate (PC)... 

    Electrodeposition of Platinum Nanowires

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hashemi Darian, Sahar (Author) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Platinum nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in polycarbonate membrane, with different average diameter of nanowires about 15, 50 and 100 nm and the height about 6 µm. Kinetics of electrodeposition process were studied by electrochemical techniques such as voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. Diffusion coefficient was then calculated from the electrochemical parameters and consequently the density of primer nuclei was extracted. The morphology of Pt nanowires was characterized by SEM, TEM and EDX. The results show that growing Nanowires on the surface of template is branch-like. The electro-oxidation of methanol and hydrogen on this electrode is investigated at room... 

    Optimized Pt Coating for High Charge Transfer- High Transparency Cathodes of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mashhoun, Sara (Author) ; Taghavinia, Nima (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Counter electrode of dye sensitized solar cell is prepared by deposition of a thin catalytic layer onto a conducting substrate and is responsible for reduction of iodide/triiodide redox electrolyte. Conventionally, counter electrode is made of platinum.
    Depending on the method of deposition, the thickness of Pt layer varies. The Pt layer may be so thick that it acts as reflector and returns the incident light back to the cell. In this case, large amount of Pt is used and a rise in cost is been made, but only the Pt particles in the interface of counter electrode/electrolyte take part in the reduction reaction.
    The aim of this project is optimization of making a counter electrode,... 

    Investigating Different Methods of Coating the Polyaniline on Anode Electrode and its Effect on Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghasemi, Behzad (Author) ; Yaghmaei, Soheila (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this research, different methods of coating polyaniline on the anode electrode and its performance in a microbial fuel cell, and a chemical method for making polyaniline / graphene catalyst on a cathode electrode and its performance in microbial electrolysis cell electrode were investigated. There are two main goals in this study. First, the production of polyaniline and the comparison of the surface morphology of this fiber with other forms of polyaniline on the surface of the electrode and its effect on the performance of the microbial fuel cell and the second, the production of polyaniline / graphene catalyst in the cathode electrode and its comparison with the platinum catalyst in the...