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    Superparamagnetic zinc ferrite spinel-graphene nanostructures for fast wastewater purification

    , Article Carbon ; Vol. 69 , April , 2014 , pp. 230-238 ; ISSN: 00086223 Meidanchi, A ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Superparamagnetic ZnFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites containing ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles (with ∼5-20 nm sizes) attached onto rGO sheets (with ∼1 μm lateral dimensions) were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction method. By increasing the graphene content of the composite from 0 to 40 wt%, the size as well as the number of the ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles decreased and the saturated magnetization of the composites reduced from 10.2 to 1.8 emu/g, resulting in lower responses to external magnetic fields. Concerning this, the time needed for 90% separation of ZnFe2O4/rGO (40 wt%) composite from its solution (2 mg/mL in ethanol) was found 60 min in the presence of an external magnetic field (∼1... 

    Visible light-induced photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide by tungsten oxide thin films

    , Article Applied Surface Science ; Volume 276 , 2013 , Pages 628-634 ; 01694332 (ISSN) Choobtashani, M ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    Tungsten oxide thin films (deposited by thermal evaporation or sol gel method) were used for photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide (GO) platelets (synthesized through a chemical exfoliation method) on surface of the films under UV or visible light of the environment, in the absence of any aqueous ambient at room temperature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique was employed to characterize surface morphology of the GO sheets and the tungsten oxide films. Moreover, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical state of the tungsten oxide films and the photocatalytic reduction of the GO platelets were quantitatively investigated. The better performance of the sol-gel tungsten... 

    Melatonin as a powerful bio-antioxidant for reduction of graphene oxide

    , Article Journal of Materials Chemistry ; Volume 21, Issue 29 , 2011 , Pages 10907-10914 ; 09599428 (ISSN) Esfandiar, A ; Akhavan, O ; Irajizad, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2011
    Abstract
    Graphene is usually synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by hydrazine as the most common and one of the strongest reducing agents. But, due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reductant in large-scale production of graphene. Here, for the first time, we used melatonin (MLT), as a powerful antioxidant and a biocompatible competitor of hydrazine in reduction of GO suspension. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), current-voltage and optical characteristics of the sheets indicated that the deoxygenation efficiency of the GO suspensions by MLT and under heating in an alkaline condition for 3 h was comparable with the efficiency obtained by hydrazine in... 

    Photocatalytic activity of CuO nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous structure prepared from bis(2-aminonicotinato) copper(II) microflakes

    , Article Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) ; Volume 25, Issue 11 , November , 2015 , Pages 3634-3642 ; 10036326 (ISSN) Tadjarodi, A ; Akhavan, O ; Bijanzad, K ; Sharif University of Technology
    Nonferrous Metals Society of China  2015
    Abstract
    An easy method for preparing CuO nanoparticles incorporated in a mesoporous structure was presented based on the thermal decomposition of a copper complex. The novel copper coordination compound of [Cu(anic)2]·0.75H2O (anic= 2-aminonicotinate) with the microflake morphology was synthesized through the reaction of 2-aminonicotinic acid (Hanic) and copper(II) nitrate. Using elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the chemical composition of CuC12H11.5N4O4.75 was proposed. Calcination process at 550 °C for 4 h transformed the microflakes into CuO nanoparticles incorporated in a mesoporous structure. The FTIR peaks assigned to 2-aminonicotinate were completely... 

    Hydrothermally synthesized CuO powders for photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria

    , Article Acta Physica Polonica A ; Volume 127, Issue 6 , 2015 , Pages 1727-1731 ; 05874246 (ISSN) Azimirad, R ; Safa, S ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Various morphologies of monoclinic CuO powders were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of copper nitrate, copper acetate or copper sulfate. The synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Antibacterial activity of the samples was studied against Escherichia coli bacteria in dark and under visible light irradiation. Although the different precursors yielded the same band gap energies (≈1.6 eV) for the synthesized CuO samples, they resulted in various morphologies (hierarchy of stabilized micro/nanostructures), specific surface areas, concentrations of... 

    Photocatalytic activity of mesoporous microbricks of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the thermal decomposition of bis(2-aminonicotinato) zinc (II)

    , Article Cuihua Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Catalysis ; Volume 36, Issue 5 , May , 2015 , Pages 742-749 ; 02539837 (ISSN) Bijanzad, K ; Tadjarodi, A ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Science Press  2015
    Abstract
    Hollow microblocks of [Zn(anic)2], as a novel coordination compound, were synthesized using 2-aminonicotinic acid (Hanic) and zinc (II) nitrate tetrahydrate. The chemical composition of the zinc complex, ZnC12H10N4O4, was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The synthesized zinc complex was used as a precursor to produce ZnO nanostructures by calcination at 550 °C for 4 h. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of porous microbricks of ZnO nanoparticles. N2 adsorption-desorption analysis showed that the... 

    Improving the photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide/ZnO nanorod films by UV irradiation

    , Article Applied Surface Science ; Volume 371 , 2016 , Pages 592-595 ; 01694332 (ISSN) Rokhsat, E ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2016
    Abstract
    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets with a low concentration (∼1 wt%) were deposited on surface of hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorod films. The deposited films were heat treated at 450 °C in order to achieve suitable GO/ZnO hybrid thin films for photocatalytic purposes. The photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite films was investigated based on degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye which is a typical pollutant model. The GO/ZnO hybrid thin films could degrade higher MB (∼90%) than the bare ZnO nanorods (which showed only ∼75% degradation) after 450 min UV irradiation. A further significant improvement (resulting in a nearly complete degradation of MB) was achieved by exposing the GO/ZnO... 

    Nanoscale graphene oxide sheets as highly efficient carbocatalysts in green oxidation of benzylic alcohols and aromatic aldehydes

    , Article Cuihua Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Catalysis ; Volume 38, Issue 4 , 2017 , Pages 745-757 ; 02539837 (ISSN) Sedrpoushan, A ; Heidari, M ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Science Press  2017
    Abstract
    Nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) sheets were synthesized and used as carbocatalysts for effective oxidation of benzylic alcohols and aromatic aldehydes. For oxidation of alcohols in the presence of H2O2 at 80 °C, the NGOs (20% mass fraction) as carbocatalysts showed selectivity toward aldehyde. The rate and yield of this reaction strongly depended on the nature of substituents on the alcohol. For 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol, <10% of it was converted into the corresponding carboxylic acid after 24 h. By contrast, 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol and diphenylmethanol were completely converted into the corresponding carboxylic acid and ketone after only 9 and 3 h, respectively. The conversion rates for... 

    Ultrahigh permeable C2N-inspired graphene nanomesh membranes versus highly strained c2n for reverse osmosis desalination

    , Article Journal of Physical Chemistry B ; Volume 123, Issue 41 , 2019 , Pages 8740-8752 ; 15206106 (ISSN) Fakhraee, M ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    Abstract
    The reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capability of hydrogenated and hydroxylated graphene nanomesh membranes (GNMs) inspired by the morphology of carbon nitride (C2N) has been studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. As an advantage, water permeance of the GNMs is found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that of the available RO filters and comparable with highly strained C2N (S-C2N) as follows: 6,6-H,OH > 12-H > S-C2N > 5,5-H,OH > 10-H. The reverse order is found for salt rejection, regardless of S-C2N. The hydrophilic character of the incorporated -OH functional group is believed to be responsible for linking the water molecules in feed and permeate sides via the... 

    Single-layer MoS2-MoO3-x heterojunction nanosheets with simultaneous photoluminescence and co-photocatalytic features

    , Article Catalysts ; Volume 11, Issue 12 , 2021 ; 20734344 (ISSN) Saadati, M ; Akhavan, O ; Fazli, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI  2021
    Abstract
    Single-layer MoS2-MoO3-x heterojunction nanosheets with visible-light-sensitive band gap energy and average lateral dimensions of ~70 nm were synthesized by using a two-step combined exfoliation method. The exfoliation was initiated from pristine MoS2, while some sulfur sites in expanded MoS2 sheets during exfoliating were substituted by ambient non-thermal oxygen, resulting in formation of α-MoO3-x crystalline domains. The morphological features, crystalline structure, phase formation, number of layers, and optical properties of the MoS2-MoO3-x nanosheets were determined by atomic force microscopy; X-ray diffraction; field emission electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; and... 

    Optical properties and surface morphology of evaporated (WO 3)1-x-(Fe2O3)x thin films

    , Article Thin Solid Films ; Volume 484, Issue 1-2 , 2005 , Pages 124-131 ; 00406090 (ISSN) Moshfegh, A. Z ; Azimirad, R ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    2005
    Abstract
    Thin films of (WO3)1 - x-(Fe2O 3)x composition were deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrates and then all samples were annealed at 400 °C in air. Optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, and optical bandgap energy of the "as deposited" and the annealed films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. It was shown that the annealing process did not substantially change the optical transmittance and reflectance of all the films except the films having x = 0.75. By increasing Fe2O 3 content in the films from x = 0 to x = 0.75, optical bandgap energy decreased from 3.4 to about 1.3 eV and from 3.1 to 2.1 eV for the "as deposited" and the annealed samples,... 

    A calculation of diffusion parameters for Cu/Ta and Ta/Si interfaces in Cu/Ta/Si(1 1 1) structure

    , Article Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing ; Volume 6, Issue 4 , 2003 , Pages 165-170 ; 13698001 (ISSN) Moshfegh, A. Z ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    2003
    Abstract
    In this investigation, we have studied the elemental diffusion coefficients of the Cu/Ta and Ta/Si interfaces in the Cu/Ta/Si(1 1 1) structure. The diffusion parameters for Cu diffusion into the Ta barrier layer, Ta diffusion into the Si substrate and diffusion of Si atoms into the Ta layer have been calculated using conversion of RBS data to concentration-depth profile curves and the solution of Fick's equation based on a constant diffusing amount boundary conditions. Furthermore, by calculating grain boundary diffusion coefficients, we have estimated grain boundary slabs of the Ta layer at different temperatures. It was shown that, the width of grain boundary slabs in the Ta layer at 700°C... 

    Retardation of Ta silicidation by bias sputtering in Cu/Ta/Si(111) thin films

    , Article Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics ; Volume 34, Issue 14 , 2001 , Pages 2103-2108 ; 00223727 (ISSN) Moshfegh, A. Z ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    2001
    Abstract
    In this investigation, we have studied the effect of negative bias voltage on the properties of a sputtered Ta layer deposited at high Ar pressure (13.3 Pa) which is used as a diffusion barrier in a Cu/Ta/Si structure focusing on its silicidation process. According to Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the Cu(85 nm)/Ta(100 nm, unbiased)/Si(111) structure was found to be stable up to 300°C in a N2 environment for 30 min. At a temperature of 450°C, TaSi2 was formed at the Ta/Si(111) interface, and the Ta diffusion barrier completely failed. By applying various negative bias voltages ranging from 0 to -150 V, an optimum bias voltage of Vb = -50 V for the sputtered Ta layer was found from... 

    Strain effects on optical properties of linearly polarized resonant modes in the presence of monolayer graphene

    , Article Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology ; Volume 277 , 2022 ; 09215107 (ISSN) Alidoust Ghatar, A ; Jahani, D ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Recently, huge attention has been drawn to improve optical sensing devices based on photonic resonators in the presence of graphene. In this paper, based on the transfer matrix approach and TE polarization of the incident electromagnetic waves, we numerically evaluate the transmission and reflection spectra for one-dimensional photonic resonators and surface plasmon resonances with strained graphene, respectively. We proved that a relatively small strain field in graphene can modulate linearly polarized resonant modes within the photonic bandgap of the defective crystal. Moreover, we study the strain effects on the surface plasmon resonances created by the evanescent wave technique at the... 

    Nanomaterials for photocatalytic degradations of analgesic, mucolytic and anti-biotic/viral/inflammatory drugs widely used in controlling sars-CoV-2

    , Article Catalysts ; Volume 12, Issue 6 , 2022 ; 20734344 (ISSN) Ebrahimi, M ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI  2022
    Abstract
    The COVID-19 pandemic has been transformed into one of the main worldwide chal-lenges, in recent years. For controlling symptoms that are caused by this disease (e.g., chills or fever, shortness of breath and/or difficulty in breathing, cough, sore throat, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, the new loss of tastes and/or smells, congestion or runny nose, nausea, vomiting and/or diar-rhea), lots of medicines including analgesics, mucolytics, and anti-biotic/viral/inflammatory drugs have been frequently prescribed. As these medicines finally contaminate terrestrial and aquatic hab-itats by entering surface waterways through pharmaceutical production and excreting trace amounts of waste after... 

    Graphene nanopores in broadband wide-angle optical cavity resonance absorbers

    , Article Surfaces and Interfaces ; Volume 30 , 2022 ; 24680230 (ISSN) Bidmeshkipour, S ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2022
    Abstract
    A cavity resonator containing graphene nanopores (GNPs), along with a metallic layer (Ag, as a reflector) and a dielectric layer (SiO2, as a spacer), has been proposed for broadband wide-angle absorption of light. The GNP/SiO2/Ag multilayers showed high significant increase in the absorption efficiency (with respect to the G/SiO2/Ag multilayer) in a broad spectral range (from ultra-violet (UV) and visible range to near-infrared (NIR)), due to the cavity resonance and absorptions induced by the oxygen-containing functional groups formed around the nanopores of graphene. The dependences of the cavity resonance absorption on the quality of the GNP layer, dimension of the cavity and the incident... 

    Graphene-based nanomaterials in fighting the most challenging viruses and immunogenic disorders

    , Article ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering ; Volume 8, Issue 1 , 2022 , Pages 54-81 ; 23739878 (ISSN) Ebrahimi, M ; Asadi, M ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2022
    Abstract
    Viral diseases have long been among the biggest challenges for healthcare systems around the world. The recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an example of how complicated the situation can get if we are not prepared to combat a viral outbreak in time, which brings up the need for quick and affordable biosensing platforms and vast knowledge of potential antiviral effects and drug/gene delivery opportunities. The same challenges have also existed for nonviral immunogenic disorders. Nanomedicine is considered a novel candidate for effectively overcoming these worldwide challenges. Among the versatile nanomaterials commonly used in biomedical applications, graphene has recently... 

    Graphene oxide sheets involved in vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires for visible light photoinactivation of bacteria

    , Article Journal of Alloys and Compounds ; Vol. 612 , 2014 , pp. 380-385 ; ISSN: 09258388 Nourmohammadi, A ; Rahighi, R ; Akhavan, O ; Moshfegh, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) hybridized with reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) were applied in efficient visible light photoinactivation of bacteria. To incorporate graphene oxide (GO) sheets within the NWs two different methods of drop-casting and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) were utilized. The EPD method yielded effective penetration of the positively charged GO sheets into the NWs to form a spider net-like structure, whereas the drop-casting method resulted in only a surface coverage of the GO sheets on top of the NWs. The electrical connection between the EPD-incorporated sheets and the NWs was checked by monitoring the electron transfer from UV-assisted photoexcited ZnO... 

    The effect of heat treatment on physical properties of nanograined (WO 3)1-x-(Fe2O3)x thin films

    , Article Vacuum ; Volume 85, Issue 8 , February , 2011 , Pages 810-819 ; 0042207X (ISSN) Azimirad, R ; Akhavan, O ; Moshfegh, A. Z ; Sharif University of Technology
    2011
    Abstract
    Thin films of (WO3)1-x-(Fe2O 3)x composition were deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrates and then all samples were annealed at 200-500 °C in air. Optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, optical bangap energy, and the optical constants of the "as deposited" and the annealed films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. It was shown that the annealing process changes the film optical properties which were related to Fe2O3 concentration. Moreover, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we have indicated that WO3 is stoichiometric, while iron oxide was in both FeO and Fe2O3 compositions so that the FeO composition converted to Fe2O3 after the... 

    Sol-gel synthesis of thermoluminescent Cd-doped ZnTe nanoparticles

    , Article Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ; Volume 53, Issue 12 , 2015 , Pages 804-807 ; 00195596 (ISSN) Shafiee, S ; Akhavan, O ; Hatami, H ; Hoseinkhani, P ; Sharif University of Technology
    National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR)  2015
    Abstract
    The Cd (3 wt%)-doped ZnTe nanoparticles with average size of 5 nm and band gap energy of 3.15 eV were synthesized by sol-gel method. The optical properties (such as band gap energy) and the size distribution of the nanoparticles have been investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Then, thermoluminescence property of the nanoparticles exposed to various doses of gamma radiation of Cs137 has been studied. The thermoluminescence glow peak of the nanoparticles showed a displacement from 290 to 230°C by increasing the dose of gamma radiation from 7.5 to 67.5 mSv. The thermoluminescence intensity of the synthesized Cd-doped ZnTe nanoparticles...