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    Electrochemical oxidation of dopamine in the presence of sulfhydryl compounds: Application to the square-wave voltammetric detection of penicillamine and cysteine

    , Article Electrochimica Acta ; Volume 51, Issue 20 , 2006 , Pages 4271-4276 ; 00134686 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Bozorgzadeh, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Electro-oxidation of dopamine at a glassy carbon electrode was investigated in the presence of some biologically important thiols (R-SH), e.g. cysteine and penicillamine. Results of cyclic voltammetric studies together with the spectrophotometric foundations via Ellman's test during the controlled-potential coulometry show a nucleophilic addition/reduction of thiol to the electrochemically generated dopaminoquinone by a 1 + 4 Michael addition. The resulting ring substituted substrate (as RS-form) is more easily oxidized leading to an increase in the anodic current of dopamine, which is proportional to the concentration of thiol. The square-wave voltammetry (SWV) were applied as a very... 

    Brain activity modeling in general anesthesia: Enhancing local mean-field models using a slow adaptive firing rate

    , Article Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics ; Volume 76, Issue 4 , 2007 ; 15393755 (ISSN) Molaee Ardekani, B ; Senhadji, L ; Shamsollahi, M. B ; Vosoughi Vahdat, B ; Wodey, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Physical Society  2007
    In this paper, an enhanced local mean-field model that is suitable for simulating the electroencephalogram (EEG) in different depths of anesthesia is presented. The main building elements of the model (e.g., excitatory and inhibitory populations) are taken from Steyn-Ross and Bojak and Liley mean-field models and a new slow ionic mechanism is included in the main model. Generally, in mean-field models, some sigmoid-shape functions determine firing rates of neural populations according to their mean membrane potentials. In the enhanced model, the sigmoid function corresponding to excitatory population is redefined to be also a function of the slow ionic mechanism. This modification adapts the... 

    Multivariable Anesthesia control using reinforcement learning

    , Article 2006 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Taipei, 8 October 2006 through 11 October 2006 ; Volume 6 , 2006 , Pages 4563-4568 ; 1062922X (ISSN); 1424401003 (ISBN); 9781424401000 (ISBN) Sadati, N ; Aflaki, A ; Jahed, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2006
    The anesthesia community has recently witnessed numerous advances in monitoring of the anesthetic state. This development has spurred a renewed interest in the automation of the clinical anesthesia. The absence of a precise model in biomedical field has motivated the authors to propose a novel approach capable of handling the uncertainties present in the model and moreover, to design a new approach which is subjective and can be adopted to patient specific requirements. In this regard a study has been conducted in this paper, in order to fit the intelligence of fuzzy controllers based on reinforcement learning in this clinical application. This study suggests that the chosen approach fits... 

    Synthesis, characterization, and kinetic investigation of acrylic monomers derived from acetaminophen and ρ-cresol as model drug molecules

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 100, Issue 6 , 2006 , Pages 4369-4374 ; 00218995 (ISSN) Vezvaie, M ; Taghizadeh, S. M ; Gholami, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this work, the synthesis, characterization, and kinetic investigation of the free-radical polymerization of 4-acetylaminobenzene propenoic ester (ABPE) and 4-methylbenzene propenoic ester (MBPE) were studied. The kinetic behaviors of ABPE and MBPE in the polymerization initiated by azobisisobutyronitrile in dimethylformamide solutions at temperatures between 50 and 120°C were investigated, and experimental and theoretical conversion-time curves were compared. Both monomers showed a polymerization ceiling temperature (T c ). Tc was calculated with experimental values of k pk1/2 with a constant concentration of 0.7 mol/L for monomers. Tc was about 141 and 131 °C for ABPE and MBPE,... 

    Simultaneous voltammetric detection of ascorbic acid and uric acid at a carbon-paste modified electrode incorporating thionine-nafion ion-pair as an electron mediator

    , Article Electrochimica Acta ; Volume 51, Issue 13 , 2006 , Pages 2599-2606 ; 00134686 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Ghalkhani, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    The electrochemical behavior of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) at the surface of a carbon-paste electrode modified with incorporate thionine-nafion ion-paired was thoroughly investigated. The results show the presence of nafion inside the matrix of modified electrode, because of the effective ion-pairing and hydrophobic interactions, significantly enhances the stability of thionine as an electron mediator inside the modified electrode. A high reproducibility in voltammetric response to analyte species results because of this enhancement. The cyclic voltammetric studies using the prepared modified electrode show the best electrocatalytic property for the electro-oxidation of AA and... 

    Manufacturing, Evaluation, and Optimization of Microreactor for Continuous Synthesis of Pharmaceutical

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mirchi, Arman (Author) ; Kazemeini, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Hosseinpour, Vahid (Co-Supervisor)
    Clopidogrel, as an antiplatelet medicine, is currently one of the most widely used medicines to reduce the risk of stroke and prevent the formation of blood clots for heart patients all over the world. This medicine is still produced using the conventional approach of drug production, i.e. batch method. On the other hand, due to the many advantages of flow chemistry, such as increasing the rate of mass and heat transfer, increasing safety, performance, etc., the production of medicines using the flow approach has been highly regarded by large pharmaceutical companies in recent years. In this research, the production of clopidogrel was done using a continuous flow approach and different... 

    Microfluidic-based multi-organ platforms for drug discovery

    , Article Micromachines ; Volume 7, Issue 9 , 2016 ; 2072666X (ISSN) Rezaei Kolahchi, A ; Khadem Mohtaram, N ; Pezeshgi Modarres, H ; Mohammadi, M. H ; Geraili, A ; Jafari, P ; Akbari, M ; Sanati Nezhad, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI AG 
    Development of predictive multi-organ models before implementing costly clinical trials is central for screening the toxicity, efficacy, and side effects of new therapeutic agents. Despite significant efforts that have been recently made to develop biomimetic in vitro tissue models, the clinical application of such platforms is still far from reality. Recent advances in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) modeling, micro- and nanotechnology, and in silico modeling have enabled single- and multi-organ platforms for investigation of new chemical agents and tissue-tissue interactions. This review provides an overview of the principles of designing... 

    Application of moving bed biofilm reactor in the removal of pharmaceutical compounds (diclofenac and ibuprofen)

    , Article Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; Volume 6, Issue 4 , 2018 , Pages 5530-5535 ; 22133437 (ISSN) Fatehifar, M ; Borghei, S. M ; Ekhlasi Nia, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Pharmaceutical waste has attracted significant attention in the past two decades due to the current high consumption of pharmaceuticals together with the development of reliable detection technologies. In order to acquire better understanding on pharmaceuticals removal in biological processes, the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing diclofenac (DFN) and ibuprofen (IBU), two of the most commonly prescribed medicines worldwide, was studied using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). An 8.5-L aerobic MBBR with Kaldnes packing filling ratio of 40% was designed. The controlled parameters were pH within neutral range, temperature of 37 °C, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of 2100 mg/L,... 

    Loading drug on nanostructured Ti6Al4V-HA for implant applications

    , Article International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications ; Volume 31, Issue 8 , 2018 , Pages 1159-1165 ; 1728144X (ISSN) Abbaspour, S ; Sadrnezhaad, S. K ; Sharif University of Technology
    Materials and Energy Research Center  2018
    Arrayed Ti6Al4V nanotubes (TNT) coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) were synthesized via electrochemical anodization method. Paracetamol was loaded onto TNT-HA electrode. Effects of anodization, nanotube formation and hydroxyapatite deposition on sorption and release of the drug were investigated. Saturation time of paracetamol on the anodized samples was 30% shorter than the hydroxyapatite-coated samples. Release behavior of the loaded drug was studied by (a) plunging the probe into phosphate buffered saline (PBS), (b) sampling the drug-loaded PBS at different times and (c) analyzing the solution via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Results showed that HA electrodes hold higher... 

    Carbon-paste electrode modified with cobalt-5-nitrolsalophen as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for detection of captopril

    , Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 109, Issue 2 , 2005 , Pages 278-284 ; 09254005 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Karimi, M ; Khajehsharifi, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    The electrochemical behavior of captopril at the surface of a carbon-paste electrode (CPE) modified with cobalt-5-nitrolsalophen (CoNSal) is described. The prepared electrode shows an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of captopril, which is leading to marked lowering in the anodic overpotential and considerable improvement of sensitivity (anodic current). Whereas at the surface of unmodified electrode an electrochemical activity for captopril cannot be observed, a very sharp anodic wave with an anodic peak potential about 650 mV (versus Ag/AgCl) is obtained using the prepared modified electrode. This catalytic wave is assigned to mediating of Co(III)/Co(II) redox... 

    PLA microspheres-embedded pva hydrogels prepared by gamma-irradiation and freeze-thaw methods as drug release carriers

    , Article International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials ; Volume 62, Issue 1 , 2013 , Pages 28-33 ; 00914037 (ISSN) Behnoodfar, D ; Dadbin, S ; Frounchi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    A drug delivery system based on poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels containing ibuprofen-loaded poly (lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres was developed to improve the release kinetics of this model drug. Gamma-irradiation and freeze-thawing were applied to prepare poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels. Properties and morphology of these composite hydrogels were investigated using FTIR, DSC, and SEM. In vitro release indicated that entrapment of the microspheres into the PVA hydrogels causes a reduction in both the release rate and the initial burst effect. PLA microspheres entrapped into the PVA hydrogels showed more suitable controlled release kinetics for drug delivery  

    Performances evaluation of Photo-Fenton process and Sonolysis for the treatment of Penicillin G formulation effluent

    , Article 1st 2011 International Conference on Environment Science and Biotechnology, ICESB 2011, Male, 25 November 2011 through 26 November 2011 ; Volume 8 , 2011 , Pages 202-208 ; 18780296 (ISSN) Saghafinia, M. S ; Emadian, S. M ; Vossoughi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Penicillin G is an active pharmaceutical ingredient of great importance in health sectors. Meanwhile, because of its huge quantity production and resistance to biodegradability, this antibiotic is ubiquitously presented in aquatic environment. In this study, the degradation of effluent wastewater from Penicillin G production plant by Photo- Fenton process and Ultrasound process (Sonolysis) was investigated, the effects of different process variables in both methods were evaluated and at last the degradation of Pen-G by these two processes in the optimum conditions was compared. Pen-G concentration and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were selected as the environmental parameters to follow the... 

    Magnetic graphene oxide mesoporous silica hybrid nanoparticles with dendritic pH sensitive moieties coated by PEGylated alginate-co-poly (acrylic acid) for targeted and controlled drug delivery purposes

    , Article Journal of Polymer Research ; Volume 22, Issue 8 , 2015 ; 10229760 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Shakerpoor, A ; Tehrani, Z. M ; Bumajdad, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Kluwer Academic Publishers  2015
    In this study synthesis of a drug delivery system (DDS) is described which has several merits over its counterparts. In order to synthesize this nano-carrier, graphene oxide nano-sheets are used to accommodate MCM-41 nanoparticles. Furthermore Fe3O4 nanoparticles are introduced to this nano-material to produce a traceable nanoparticle. Since cancerous tissues have lower pH than healthy tissues, pH-sensitive oligomers are attached to this nano-material. Finally the nano-carrier is wrapped by a biocompatible shell (PEGylated sodium alginate); this polymeric shell makes the DDS capable of a more controllable drug release. By measuring in vitro situation, ‘loading content%’... 

    Fabrication of PLA/PEG/MWCNT electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for anticancer drug delivery

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 132, Issue 3 , August , 2015 ; 00218995 (ISSN) Anaraki, N. A ; Rad, L. R ; Irani, M ; Haririan, I ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Inc  2015
    In the present study, polylactic acid (PLA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared via electrospinning process and their applications for the anticancer drug delivery system were investigated. A response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to evaluate the effect of key parameters of electrospinning process including solution concentration, feeding rate, tip-collector distance (TCD) and applied voltage on the morphology of PLA/PEG/MWCNT nanofibrous scaffolds. In optimum conditions (concentration of 8.15%, feeding rate of 0.2 mL/h, voltage of 18.50 kV and TCD of 13.0 cm), the minimum experimental... 

    A sensitive colorimetric detection of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical products based on formation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 17, Issue 2 F , 2010 , Pages 148-153 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Hormozi Nezhad, M. R ; Karimi, M. A ; Shahheydari, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    A sensitive colorimetric method for the detection of ascorbic acid was proposed in this research based on the reduction of silver ions by ascorbic acid in the presence of citrate-stabilized silver seeds, additional trisodium citrate and a polymer such as polyvinylpyrrolidone. The color of the stable sol is controlled by varying the concentration of trisodium citrate (TSC), polyvinylpyrrolidone, silver nitrate and silver seeds. The reduction of Ag + to triangle silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by ascorbic acid in the presence of trisodium citrate (TSC) and silver seeds produced two very intense surface plasmon resonance peaks of Ag-NPs. The plasmon absorbance of Ag-NPs allows the quantitative... 

    Enzymatic synthesis of amoxicillin with immobilized penicillin G acylase

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 17, Issue 1 C , 2010 , Pages 106-113 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Alemzadeh, I ; Borghei, G ; Vafi, L ; Roostaazad, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    The synthesis of amoxicillin with immobilized penicillin G acylase (PGA) in aqueous medium was investigated. The parameters studied were: time course of amoxicillin production, concentration of substrates: hydroxyphenylglycine methyl ester (HPGM) and 6-aminopeicillanic acid (6-APA) and the. effect of enzyme (PGA) content and pH, under variable and constant conditions and temperature variations. In the study of two substrate concentration on amoxicillin production, impressive results were obtained for a 1/3 ratio of 6-amino penicillanic acid (6-APA) and hydroxyl-phenylglycine methyl ester (HPGM). The. synthesis of amoxicillin was preferable at constant pH rather than a variable one. Other... 

    Partitioning of penicillin G acylase in aqueous two-phase systems of poly(ethylene glycol) 20000 or 35000 and potassium dihydrogen phosphate or sodium citrate

    , Article Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data ; Volume 55, Issue 1 , 2010 , Pages 243-248 ; 00219568 (ISSN) Pazuki, G ; Vossoughi, M ; Taghikhani, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    The partitioning of penicillin G acylase in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS's) containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 20000 or 35000 and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) or sodium citrate (C 6H5Na3O7 ·5H2O) has been measured at three temperatures, (301.2, 307.2, and 310.2) K. The effects of temperature, polymer molecular weight, and polymer and salt concentrations on the partitioning of penicillin G in the ATPS were studied. The experimental data showed that the composition of salt has a large effect on partitioning of penicillin G in ATPS, and the temperature of the system has a small effect on the partitioning. The UNIFAC-FV group contribution model (Pazuki et al., Ind. Eng. Chem.... 

    Toward a comprehensive microextraction/determination unit: A chip silicon rubber polyaniline-based system and its direct coupling with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    , Article Journal of Separation Science ; Volume 39, Issue 21 , 2016 , Pages 4227-4233 ; 16159306 (ISSN) Bagheri, H ; Allahdadlalouni, M ; Zamani, C ; Sharif University of Technology
    Wiley-VCH Verlag  2016
    An inexpensive silicon rubber-based chip was constructed by fabricating a triangle-shaped microcanal with a 135 μm width and 234 μm depth by laser ablation technique. The fabricated groove was sealed by a thin glass cover while two pieces of stainless-steel tubing were connected to each side of the canal. Then, a thin polyaniline film was synthesized on the walls of the canal by chemical oxidation using a syringe pump to deliver the relevant reagents. The microfluidic system was eventually connected to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To evaluate the capability of the constructed microfluidic system, it was implemented to the analysis of submilliliter volumes of environmental samples... 

    Organ-tumor-on-a-chip for chemosensitivity assay: A critical review

    , Article Micromachines ; Volume 7, Issue 8 , 2016 ; 2072666X (ISSN) Kashaninejad, N ; Nikmaneshi, M. R ; Moghadas, H ; Kiyoumarsi Oskouei, A ; Rismanian, M ; Barisam, M ; Saidi, M. S ; Firoozabadi, B ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI AG  2016
    With a mortality rate over 580,000 per year, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. However, the emerging field of microfluidics can potentially shed light on this puzzling disease. Unique characteristics of microfluidic chips (also known as micro-total analysis system) make them excellent candidates for biological applications. The ex vivo approach of tumor-on-a-chip is becoming an indispensable part of personalized medicine and can replace in vivo animal testing as well as conventional in vitro methods. In tumor-on-a-chip, the complex three-dimensional (3D) nature of malignant tumor is co-cultured on a microfluidic chip and high throughput screening tools to evaluate... 

    Dendritic multi-walled carbon nanotube with thermoresponsive shells: A good carrier for anticancer drugs

    , Article Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry ; Volume 35 , 2016 , Pages 332-340 ; 1226086X (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Mazaheri Tehrani, Z ; Shirvani, T ; Doulabi, M ; Bumajdad, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Korean Society of Industrial Engineering Chemistry 
    In this research, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified by dendritic macromonomer. Herein, polyamidoamine with acrylamide end groups was incorporated on MWCNTs. Afterwards, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), (PNIPAM), was grafted on polyamidoamine in a facile synthesis. Then, doxorubicin as anticancer drug was loaded on this nanocarrier. The drug release was studied at below and above the lower critical solution temperature of PNIPAM, (LCST 32 °C), 27 °C and 37 °C, respectively. At 37 °C (body temperature) the polymer shell dehydrated and the drug release increased. The profile of drug release was expressed by Higuchi's equation which indicated that the drug release mechanism was...