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    Tantalum electrodes modified with well-aligned carbon nanotube-au nanoparticles: application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of cefazolin

    , Article Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology ; Volume 173, Issue 6 , July 2014 , Pages 1511-1528 Fayazfar, H ; Afshar, A ; Dolati, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Carbon nanotube/nanoparticle hybrid materials have been proven to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity suggesting broad potential applications in the field of electroanalysis. For the first time, modification of Ta electrode with aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Au nanoparticles introduced for the sensitive determination of the antibiotic drug, cefazolin (CFZ). The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward CFZ were investigated by means of cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of CFZ, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and a significant increase of... 

    Biosensor for Fast Detection (Based on Thyroid Hormones)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moradi, Farshid (Author) ; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad Jafar (Supervisor)
    Thyroid gland is one of the important internal organs of the body that is responsible for T3 and T4 hormones secretion. Concentration of these hormones directly influences growth of body, thus measurement concentration of thyroid hormones is one of the most common experiments all of the world, specially in our country that Hypothyroidism is common among people. Secretion of hormones in thyroid gland controlled by TSH (thyroid Stimulating Hormone) that released from Pituitary gland. TSH concentration is opposite of level of thyroid secretion. Because of interconnected relationship between these three hormones, measurement of each of them is so important. Many researches for developing... 

    Voltammetric Determination of Tryptophan and 5-Hydroxytryptophan Using Graphite Electrode Modified with a Thin Film of Graphite/Diamond Nano-mixture And Determination of omeprazole Using Graphite Electrode

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bayat, Maryam (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    At the first part of this thesis, a pyrolitic graphite electrode (PGE) modified with graphite/nanodiamond film (GND) was applied as a sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination and study of electrochemical behavior of tryptophan (Trp) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in aqueous solutions. The results showed that GND caused a remarkable increase in the peak currents so the GND/PGE electrode surface was more sensitive to the concentration of Trp and 5-HTP than the PGE surface. The determination of Trp and 5-HTP were investigated by stripping voltammetry. Experimental parameters such as scan rate, pH, accumulation conditions and amount of the modifier used on the PGE surface were... 

    Preparation and Investigation of the Electrochemical of the Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified by Nanocellulose/Carbon Nanoparticle: Application to Pharmaceutical Determinations

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Balotf, Hamed (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    In the first part, a novel electrochemical sensor for clonazepam (CLNP) was fabricated based on immobilizing cellulose nanofibers /carbon nanoparticles (CNFs/CNPs) nanocomposite on glassy carbon electrode (CNFs/CNPs/GCE). The combination of CNFs and CNPs produced a novel kind of structurally uniform and electro-analytically active nanocomposite. The surface morphology of CNFs/CNPs layer deposited onto glassy carbon electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results of the voltammetric investigations showed a considerable enhancement in the cathodic peak current of CLNP (up to 60 times) on the surface of CNFs/CNPs/GCE relative to the bare GCE. Under the optimal... 

    Fabrication of Hybrid Graphene/Metal Electrodes for Biosensor Applications

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohammadzadeh, Amirmahdi (Author) ; Simchi, Abdolreza (Supervisor)
    Electrochemical sensing of glucose has received paramount attention in recent years, particularly, the non-enzymatic glucose sensing is one of the trends in the whole biosensing world. In this research, synthesis and evaluation of a hybrid structure of vertical oriented nickel nanorod-reduced graphene oxide sheets as a non-enzymatic glucose sensor were performed. The 3D array of nickel nanorods was synthesized by electrodeposition of nickel sulfate electrolyte in track-etched polycarbonate template with 100 nm pore size and 6-10 μm thickness. The electrodeposition performed in various conditions, and the best result was achieved by application of potential of 3 V for 60 minutes. The shiny... 

    Gold, Palladium and Gold-Palladium Nanoparticles Electrodes Electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide and Titanium Oxide for Direct Determination and Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Siavash Moakhar, Roozbeh (Author) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Hexavalent chromium ions (Cr(VI)) is one of the most dangerous heavy ions for the environment, humans and other living organisms. Hence, finding new ways to determine and reduction to the much less toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) is highly important. In this thesis, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical methods have been employed for the direct detection and reduction of Cr (VI). For this purpose, the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode decorated with gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (AuPd) was used for the determination and reduction of Cr(VI) via electrochemical route. These AuPd decorated electrodes exhibited a wide linear concentration range of 0.001-100 µM, a very low... 

    Design of Low Frequency High Resolution Integrated Bioimpedance Meter

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kaveh, Mohammad (Author) ; Atarodi, Mojtaba (Supervisor) ; Mehrany, Khashayar (Supervisor)
    This thesis activities, consists of three main parts. The first part is, manufacturing and optimization of the electrical part of blood glucose measurement devices, based on electrochemical sensors. In this part, design of blood glucose measurement systems based on two and three electrode electrochemical sensors are proceeded and the accuracy of the electrical block, is increased up to 1mg/dl according to sensor current range. The second part, is related to the design of different probes for blood electrical characteristics (impedance magnitude) measurements, at low frequencies. Measurements with these probes show, first the blood impedance magnitude range at low frequencies and moreover,... 

    Ni(II) 1D-coordination polymer/C 60 -modified glassy carbon electrode as a highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose electrochemical sensor

    , Article Applied Surface Science ; Volume 478 , 2019 , Pages 361-372 ; 01694332 (ISSN) Shahhoseini, L ; Mohammadi, R ; Ghanbari, B ; Shahrokhian, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    A new non-enzymatic sensor for glucose is prepared by using of Ni(II)-one dimensional coordination polymer (Ni(II)-Cp) and C 60 . The Ni(II)-Cp prepared by slow diffusion and evaporation of two solution layers of NiCl 2 and diaza-macrocycle bearing two pyridine side arms (as the reported tecton) in DMF. The Ni(II)-Cp was characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). C 60 as modified was added to Ni(II)-Cp for improving the electrical and chemical stability of the composite. The newly assembled Ni(II)-Cp/C 60 also coated on glassy carbon electrode (GC) to... 

    Fast and ultra-sensitive voltammetric detection of lead ions by two-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanolayers as glassy carbon electrode modifier

    , Article Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation ; Volume 134 , 2019 , Pages 679-687 ; 02632241 (ISSN) Hatamie, A ; Jalilian, P ; Rezvani, E ; Kakavand, A ; Simchi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Recently, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has attracted great interest for photo(electro)chemical applications such as sensing, solar energy exploitation, photocatalysis, and hydrogen generation. This paper presents the potential application and benefits of g-C3N4 nanolayers as a green and highly efficient electrode modifier for the detection of trace lead ions in drinking water and urban dust samples. Carbon nitride nanosheets with a thickness of ∼6 A° and lateral of 100–150 nm were prepared through high-temperature polymerization of melamine followed by sonication-assisted liquid exfoliation. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by a thin layer of g-C3N4 through drop casting and... 

    Preparation and Investigation of Electrochemical Sensors for Determination of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compunds Based on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Polypyrrole/Carbon Nanotube Composite

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Azimzadeh Sani, Mahnaz (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    In the recent years, conductive polymers are widely used in the design and construction of chemical and biological sensors.The polypyrrole due to features such as good thermal and chemical stability, ease of synthesis and better conductivity than other conductive polymers, atracts much attention. In order to modification of electrode surface,adhesiveand thin polymer films can be electropolymerized in the presence of organic or inorganic dopants on the surface of metal or carbon surfaces in aqueous or organic solutions. On the other hand carbon nanotubes by owing unique properties such as chemical stability and high electrical conductivity are good choice for electrod surface modification.... 

    Synthesis of Hybrid Graphene Nanostructures and Their Application in Design and Fabrication of Electrochemical Sensors for Pharmaceutical and Biological Applications

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Asadian, Elham (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Iraji Zad, Azam (Supervisor) ; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin ($item.subfieldsMap.e)
    Recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in graphene and graphene-based materials due to their extraordinary electrical properties, large specific surface area, fascinating mechanical properties, good chemical stability and remarkable electrochemical activity. The combination of these properties make graphene an attractive candidate for a wide range of applications including energy conversion and storage devices (batteries and supercapacitors), electronic devices (transistors and memory devices) and solar cells. On the other hand, graphene has a potential application in constructing different kind of sensors such as biosensors and electrochemical sensors due to its planar... 

    Nano composite coating based on cellulose nanofibers/carbon nanoparticles: application to voltammetric determination of clonazepam

    , Article Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry ; Vol. 19, issue. 1 , 2014 , p. 251-260 Shahrokhian, S ; Balotf, H ; Ghalkhani, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    A novel electrochemical sensor for clonazepam (CLNP) was fabricated based on immobilizing cellulose nanofibers/carbon nanoparticles (CNFs/CNPs) nanocomposite on glassy carbon electrode (CNFs/CNPs/GCE). The combination of CNFs and CNPs produced a novel kind of structurally uniform and electro-analytically active nanocomposite. The surface morphology of CNFs/CNPs layer deposited onto glassy carbon electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results of the voltammetric investigations showed a considerable enhancement in the cathodic peak current of CLNP (up to 60 times) on the surface of CNFs/CNPs/GCE relative to the bare GCE. Under the optimal conditions, the modified... 

    Electrochemical sensing based on carbon nanoparticles: A review

    , Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 293 , 2019 , Pages 183-209 ; 09254005 (ISSN) Asadian, E ; Ghalkhani, M ; Shahrokhian, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    The emergence of nanoscience and nanotechnology has opened up new horizons to researchers. In this regard, carbon nanomaterials are considered as the cornerstone of numerous investigations. Among various carbon nanostructures, “Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs)” have attracted a great deal of attention during the past few years due to their unique properties such as high surface area, non-toxicity, biocompatibility as well as simple and low-cost synthetic procedures via environmentally friendly routes. Thanks to these properties along with their interesting optical behavior, CNPs have found diverse applications in the fields of bioimaging, nanomedicine, photo/electro-catalysis, and bio/chemical... 

    Review - Towards the two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D h-BN) electrochemical sensing platforms

    , Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society ; Volume 167, Issue 12 , 2020 Angizi, S ; Khalaj, M ; Alem, S. A. A ; Pakdel, A ; Willander, M ; Hatamie, A ; Simchi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    IOP Publishing Ltd  2020
    Electrochemical sensing performance of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D h-BN) has traditionally been suppressed by their intrinsic electrical insulation and deficient electron transportation mechanism. However, the excellent electrocatalytic activity, high specific surface area, N- and B-active edges, structural defects, adjustable band gap through interaction with other nanomaterials, and chemical functionalization, makes 2D h-BN ideal for many sensing applications. Therefore, finding a pathway to modulate the electronic properties of 2D h-BN while the intrinsic characteristics are well preserved, will evolve a new generation of highly sensitive and selective electrochemical... 

    Development of an electrochemical sensor based on (rGO-CNT) nanocomposite for raloxifene analysis

    , Article Materials Chemistry and Physics ; Volume 263 , 2021 ; 02540584 (ISSN) Ghalkhani, M ; Shahrokhian, S ; Navabi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    A novel modified electrode is reported for the electrochemical investigation of the oxidation mechanism and also voltammetric determination of raloxifene (RLX). The surface of the electrode was modified with a thin layer of reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotube nano-composite (rGO-CNT) was prepared, and successfully employed for the electrochemical studies of RLX. The morphology of the sensor surface was characterized by using a scanning electron microscopy. RLX Oxidation response significantly increased at the GCE covered with rGO-CNT, regarding the bare and CNT or rGO functionalized GCE. Experimental parameters affecting the RLX response were optimized and mechanism of the RLX oxidation... 

    Electrochemical preparation of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole modified pencil graphite electrode for the determination of phenothiazine in model and real biological samples

    , Article Talanta ; Volume 144 , November , 2015 , Pages 456-465 ; 00399140 (ISSN) Nezhadali, A ; Rouki, Z ; Nezhadali, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    Abstract A sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of phenothiazine (PTZ) was introduced based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film. A computational study was performed to evaluate the template-monomer geometry and interaction energy in the prepolymerization mixture. The electrode was prepared during electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py) on a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The quantitative measurements were performed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solutions using 60% (v/v) acetonitrile-water (ACN/H2O) binary solvent. The effect of important parameters like pH, monomer... 

    A kinetic study on the electrodeposition of nickel nanostructure and its electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction

    , Article Journal of Applied Electrochemistry ; Volume 40, Issue 11 , November , 2010 , Pages 1941-1947 ; 0021891X (ISSN) Torabi, M ; Dolati, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    The electrodeposition of nickel was studied using electrochemical techniques in different electrolytes and various agents. The voltammetry analysis clearly showed that the electrodeposition of nickel was a diffusion-controlled process associated with a typical nucleation process. The current transients represented instantaneous nucleation with a typical three-dimensional (3D) growth mechanism. Scharifker's equations were derived for instantaneous and progressive nucleation of the 3D growth of the spherical centers under diffusion-controlled condition. The number of nucleation sites increased with the increment in overpotential and Ni 2+ concentration. Atomic force microscopy was used to... 

    A preliminary study of the electro-catalytic reduction of oxygen on Cu-Pd alloys in alkaline solution

    , Article Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry ; Volume 647, Issue 1 , 2010 , Pages 66-73 ; 15726657 (ISSN) Gobal, F ; Arab, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Copper-palladium alloys of different compositions are electrodeposited on nickel from aqueous solutions. These alloys are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The catalytic activity of these alloys toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution is investigated using rotating disk electrode (RDE). The number of electrons transferred per O2 molecule (n) obtained at different potentials is close to 2 at low overpotential indicating HO2- formation and gradually increases to 4 at higher overpotentials indicating full reduction to OH-. It is shown that Cu-Pd alloys are better electrocatalysts than Pd with Pd-Cu-1 having 24.5%... 

    Selective voltammetric determination of d-penicillamine in the presence of tryptophan at a modified carbon paste electrode incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles and quinizarine

    , Article Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry ; Volume 644, Issue 1 , Jan , 2010 , Pages 1-6 ; 15726657 (ISSN) Mazloum Ardakani, M ; Beitollahi, H ; Taleat, Z ; Naeimi, H ; Taghavinia, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) chemically modified with TiO2 nanoparticles and quinizarine (QZ) was used as a selective electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of minor amounts of d-penicillamine (D-PA) and tryptophan (Trp). This modified electrode showed very efficient electrocatalytic activity for anodic oxidation of both d-PA and Trp. Substantial decreases of anodic overpotentials for both compounds made this analysis possible. Results of square wave voltammetry (SWV) using this modified electrode showed two well-resolved anodic waves for the oxidation of d-PA and Trp, which makes the simultaneous determination of both compounds possible. The peak potential for the... 

    Novel nanostructure electrochemical sensor for electrocatalytic determination of norepinephrine in the presence of high concentrations of acetaminophene and folic acid

    , Article Applied Catalysis A: General ; Volume 378, Issue 2 , 2010 , Pages 195-201 ; 0926860X (ISSN) Mazloum Ardakani, M ; Beitollahi, H ; Sheikh Mohseni, M. A ; Naeimi, H ; Taghavinia, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    In the present paper, the use of a carbon paste electrode modified by 2,2′-[1,2 buthanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone (BH) and TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by a simple and rapid method was described. The modified electrode showed an excellent character for electrocatalytic oxidization of norepinephrine (NE), acetaminophene (AC) and folic acid (FA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), a highly selective and simultaneous determination of NE, AC and FA has been explored at the modified electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak currents of NE, AC and FA increased linearly with their concentration at the ranges of 4.0-1100.0 μM, 12.5-500.0 μM and 200.0-3200.0 μM,...