Search for: reverse-osmosis
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    Ro brine treatment and disposal methods

    , Article Desalination and Water Treatment ; Volume 35, Issue 1-3 , Aug , 2011 , Pages 39-53 ; 19443994 (ISSN) Afrasiabi, N ; Shahbazali, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2011
    More than 50 percent of countries in the world will likely face water stress or water shortages by 2025, and by 2050, as much as 75 percent of the world's population could face water scarcity. Desalination technologies, particularly the reverse osmosis (RO) process, have increasingly been adopted to produce freshwater from alternative sources such as seawater and brackish water due to water scarcity. However, desalination applications have always been limited by the disposal costs of RO brine and the adverse impact of brine on the receiving environment. The scope of this paper is to identify technically and commercially RO brine disposal and treatment methods such as deep well injection,... 

    Interaction effects in multicomponent separation by reverse osmosis

    , Article Journal of Membrane Science ; Volume 183, Issue 1 , 2001 , Pages 15-27 ; 03767388 (ISSN) Soltanieh, M ; Sahebdelfar, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2001
    Separation of multicomponent mixtures, in particular ternary systems, was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The interactions in various multicomponent mixtures were determined. Using data from literature as well as the limited data obtained in our laboratory, we identified the situations where the multicomponent effects are strong. A correlation between the coupled permeability coefficients and straight permeability coefficients and concentration of components in ternary systems was obtained. Capabilities of thermodynamic models in describing the electrolyte-nonelectrolyte systems consisting of a weak acid were also investigated. The results of this work show that the... 

    Removal of Surface Defects and Improvement of Properties of Reverse Osmosis Membrane in Water Treatment Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Noroozali, Amir Arsalan (Author) ; Bastani, Dariush (Supervisor) ; Mousavi, Abbas (Supervisor)
    The purpose of this project is to correct the surface defects of the reverse osmosis membrane. The membrane tested in this project was a thin film made of three layers of polyester, polysulfone and polyamide. These three layers provide mechanical resistance to operating pressure, suitable substrate for polyamide layer synthesis and membrane selectivity, respectively.In order to improve the surface properties and modify the reverse osmosis membrane, it was first attempted to coat it with a protective layer of polyvinyl alcohol, then by modifying this layer and improving the properties of polyvinyl alcohol and synthesizing the sulfite agent on it by the esterification reaction, to the best... 

    Recovery of cooling tower blowdown water for reuse: the investigation of different types of pretreatment prior nanofiltration and reverse osmosis

    , Article Journal of Water Process Engineering ; Volume 10 , 2016 , Pages 188-199 ; 22147144 (ISSN) Davood Abadi Farahani, M. H ; Borghei, S. M ; Vatanpour, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    The suitability of two different pretreatment methods, i.e., coagulation-filtration and ultrafiltration (UF), and two final membrane treatment technologies, namely nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), for desalination of a cooling tower blowdown (CTBD) was investigated. Particular attention was paid to ensuring that the best pretreatment method could enhance the permeate flux and lifespan of the NF and RO membranes and decrease the membranes' fouling characteristics. Furthermore, the difference of NF and RO performances in CTBD treatment was investigated. In order to find the most appropriate type of coagulant, coagulant dosage, pH and co-coagulant dosage, 21 jar tests were... 

    Optimum design of R.O. membrane by using simulation techniques

    , Article Desalination and Water Treatment ; Volume 9, Issue 1-3 , 2009 , Pages 189-194 ; 19443994 (ISSN) Afrasiabi, N ; Ehteshami, M ; Ardakanian, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Increasing demand of fresh water, and limitation water resources, with respect to world economic growth brings up the importance of utilization of saline water. At the current research the sensitivity analysis of ROSA was conducted. For this analysis, a single stage reverse osmosis is designed for well water specifi cation in southern Tehran under following condition: Feed fl ow: 40 m3/h and membrane Element: BW30–400 FR. The sensitivity analyses for all chemical element of base water were performed. As a result of sensitivity analysis shortest sensitivity gap, belongs to boron, and longest sensitivity gap, belongs to calcium. Which refl ects, under the same conditions, the least element to... 

    Enhance the Chlorine Resistance of Reverse Osmosis Membrane

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kehtari Anvar, Mahmood (Author) ; Mousavi, Abbas (Supervisor) ; Abdekhodaei, Mohammad Jafar (Supervisor)
    Reverse osmosis membrane one of the common methods used for water desalination, today membrane, thin film composite(TFC) include three layers, top the these layers named selection layer, this poly amid layer contacted with feed water, sensitivity to chlorine in polyamide layer lead to high membrane chlorine sensitive. Difference methods used for enhance the chlorine resistance in polyamide membrane that categorized in three general categories, covering and protection of sensitive areas method has best results in comparison to other methods. In this research protection method choose and used, material that used, sanitized by result from surface analysis of commercial membrane manufactured in... 

    Synthesis of Ultra-Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis (ULPRO) Membrane

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karimi, Hossein (Author) ; Soltanieh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Mousavi, Abbas (Co-Advisor)
    The aim of this project is to achieve a semi permeable high flux membrane with a reasonable salt rejection for the treatment of low osmotic pressure water. A thin film composite membrane consists of three polymeric layers was studied in this project. These layers were polyester support, polysulfone sub layer and polyamine selective layer. The polyester support provides the mechanical resistance against the operating pressure. The polysulfone sub layer provides the suitable area for polyamide synthesize, and the polyamide layer is the selective active layer of membrane.
    The resistance to water penetration in sub layer was reduced first and then, the pores in the polyamide layer refined by... 

    Techno-economic feasibility of a solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system integrated with lithium battery energy storag

    , Article Desalination and Water Treatment ; Volume 167 , 2019 , Pages 57-74 ; 19443994 (ISSN) Meratizaman, M ; Abbasi Godarzi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Desalination Publications  2019
    Today, energy and fresh water play a vital role in human life and the development of economics and also in industry. The energy density in water desalination process is remarkable, so using the renewable energy sources for this purpose can be interesting especially in the high potential renewable energy sources (solar energy) like Middle East. The simulation and feasibility study of solar water desalination system coupled with lithium battery energy storage is considered in the case study of Iran. For these purposes, a complete simulation of the considered system is done. Then, using simulation results, the economic study is carried out using tem economic method. Also, the parametric study... 

    A feasibility study of solar-powered reverse osmosis processes

    , Article Desalination ; 2020 Rahimi, B ; Shirvani, H ; Alamolhoda, A. A ; Farhadi, F ; Karimi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    The use of solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination systems is a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution in the desalination industry. However, there are some substantial technical and economic challenges due to the intermittency and fluctuation of solar energy. Recent technological improvement and feed-in tariff policies enable these systems to be competitive with conventional grid-connected reverse osmosis systems. In this paper, a feasibility study of the integration of solar panels with the grid to power small-scale reverse osmosis systems (namely up to 2000 m3/day) is conducted in Iran, as a country with a low price of electricity. For this purpose, a city located on the... 

    A feasibility study of solar-powered reverse osmosis processes

    , Article Desalination ; Volume 500 , 2021 ; 00119164 (ISSN) Rahimi, B ; Shirvani, H ; Alamolhoda, A. A ; Farhadi, F ; Karimi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    The use of solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination systems is a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution in the desalination industry. However, there are some substantial technical and economic challenges due to the intermittency and fluctuation of solar energy. Recent technological improvement and feed-in tariff policies enable these systems to be competitive with conventional grid-connected reverse osmosis systems. In this paper, a feasibility study of the integration of solar panels with the grid to power small-scale reverse osmosis systems (namely up to 2000 m3/day) is conducted in Iran, as a country with a low price of electricity. For this purpose, a city located on the... 

    Seawater desalination via waste heat recovery from generator of wind turbines: How economical is it to use a hybrid hdh-ro unit?

    , Article Sustainability (Switzerland) ; Volume 13, Issue 14 , 2021 ; 20711050 (ISSN) Rostamzadeh, H ; Rostami, S ; Amidpour, M ; He, W ; Han, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI AG  2021
    Over recent years, the concept of waste heat recovery from the generators of wind turbines for driving a thermal-driven desalination system was introduced, and its advantages were highlighted. However, any selection of a bottoming thermal-driven desalination system among different existing technologies should be taken under consideration before making an ultimate recommendation. Unfortunately, no comprehensive comparison is available in the literature to compare the performance as well as the cost aspects of using the waste thermal energy of the generator of a wind turbine for desalinating seawater, comparing them with those of a layout where the power of the wind turbine is directly... 

    Design of a Desalination System with High Recovery Using Membrane Based Systems

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Naderi Beni, Ali (Author) ; Mousavi, Ali (Supervisor) ; Nouri Borujerdi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Osmotically assisted reverse osmosis (OARO) assimilates high efficiency due to non-thermal processes and accessing high salinity. This makes it suitable for high water recovery for the purpose of zero- and minimal liquid discharge desalination. Moreover, forward osmosis (FO) has low fouling efficiency which makes the operating costs of cleaning and replacement lower. This study aims at incorporating OARO and FO in a novel configuration with multiple inlet of the diluted draw solution to the regeneration section. Pinch analysis with simplifying assumptions was carried out for FO and OARO standalone stages. The results showed that pinch point in FO resides either on the beginning or at the end... 

    Effect of electromagnetic field on membrane fouling in reverse osmosis process

    , Article Desalination ; Volume 395 , 2016 , Pages 41-45 ; 00119164 (ISSN) Rouina, M ; Kariminia, H. R ; Mousavi, S. A ; Shahryari, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V 
    In the present study, the effect of electromagnetic field on the salt and water transport and reduction of carbonate deposit during reverse osmosis desalination was investigated. The electromagnetic field was generated by AC current through a solenoid wound around the membrane separation module. The current intensity and frequency was 25 A and 50 Hz, respectively. Experiments were conducted using CaCO3 solution at the concentration of 5.5 mmol/L. For comparison purposes, desalination by the membrane, in the presence and absence of an electromagnetic field was conducted. While the desalination process temperature was kept constant, the product temperature increased by less than 2 °C when the... 

    Synthesis and characterization of polyamide membrane for the separation of acetic acid from water using RO process

    , Article Membrane Water Treatment ; Volume 8, Issue 4 , 2017 , Pages 323-336 ; 20058624 (ISSN) Mirfarah, H ; Mousavi, S. A ; Mortazavi, S. S ; Sadeghi, M ; Bastani, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    Techno Press  2017
    The main challenge in many applications of acetic acid is acid dehydration and its recovery from wastewater streams. Therefore, the performance of polyamide thin film composite is evaluated to separate acetic acid from water. To reach this goal, the formation of polyamide layer on polysulfone support membrane was investigated via interfacial polymerization (IP) of meta-phenylenediamine (MPD) in water with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in hexane. Also, the effect of synthesis conditions, such as concentration of monomers and curing temperature on separation of acetic acid from water were investigated by reverse osmosis process. Moreover, the separation mechanism was discussed. The solute... 

    Ultrahigh permeable C2N-inspired graphene nanomesh membranes versus highly strained c2n for reverse osmosis desalination

    , Article Journal of Physical Chemistry B ; Volume 123, Issue 41 , 2019 , Pages 8740-8752 ; 15206106 (ISSN) Fakhraee, M ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    The reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capability of hydrogenated and hydroxylated graphene nanomesh membranes (GNMs) inspired by the morphology of carbon nitride (C2N) has been studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. As an advantage, water permeance of the GNMs is found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that of the available RO filters and comparable with highly strained C2N (S-C2N) as follows: 6,6-H,OH > 12-H > S-C2N > 5,5-H,OH > 10-H. The reverse order is found for salt rejection, regardless of S-C2N. The hydrophilic character of the incorporated -OH functional group is believed to be responsible for linking the water molecules in feed and permeate sides via the... 

    Reverse osmosis desalination for irrigation in a pistachio orchard

    , Article Desalination ; Volume 516 , 2021 ; 00119164 (ISSN) Rahimi, B ; Afzali, M ; Farhadi, F ; Alamolhoda, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Nowadays, the salinisation of groundwaters causes a substantial reduction in the yield of agricultural lands. To reduce the impact of this problem on the profitability of the lands, farmers tend to use desalination processes. However, this transition is not simple and some technical, economic, and environmental issues should be considered. In this study, we highlight some key factors for the use of desalination processes in the agricultural sector. Also, we conduct a techno-economic evaluation of using reverse osmosis desalination in a pistachio orchard as a high-value crop. Moreover, because of the solar energy potential in the location of the case study, the use of solar panels is assessed... 

    Optimization of the Surface Properties of the Reverse Osmosis Membrane for Desalination of Seawater

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jahangiri, Foad (Author) ; Farhadi, Fatola (Supervisor) ; Musavi, Abbas (Supervisor)
    Surface modification of thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide reverse osmosis membrane was carried out using CO2-laser irradiation and Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to improve performance and antifouling properties of the prepared RO membranes. Firstly, TFC polyamide RO membranes were synthesized via interfacial polymerization of trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and m-phenylenediamine (MPD) monomers over porous polysulfone ultrafiltration support. Next, CO2-laser irradiation with 10,000-40,000 pulses and DBD plasma with 15, 30, 60 and 90 seconds duration were used for the surface modification. The surface properties were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements.... 

    Investigation Methods to Optimize the Operation of the RO Plant of Hakim Farabi Agri Industrial Co

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Maryami, Fatemeh (Author) ; Hashemian, Jamaloddin (Supervisor) ; Mousavi, Reza (Co-Advisor)
    Membrane fouling is the main cause of permeate flux decline and loss of product quality in reverse osmosis (RO) systems, so good pretreatment of the feed solution was required to prevent membrane fouling. One of the most common applied pretreatment methods to prevent or control the scaling of different salts in feed water is to add scale inhibitors. Due to the great variety of commercial scale inhibitors RO plant operators must evaluate these chemicals before use in real plants. In this project three different types of antiscalants at concentrations of 10 ppm and one type of magnetic descaler on the RO pilot for the R.O plant feed water of agro-industrial Hakim Farabi evaluated and function... 

    Constructing Reverse Osmosis Membrane of High Flux & Rejection for Salty Water by Supercritical System

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jafarzadeh, Sina (Author) ; Goudarz Nia, Iraj (Supervisor) ; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas (Co-Advisor)
    This research aims to construct a membrane using supercritical system which can be used in the process of brackish water filtration.
    For this purpose solutions of polysulfone with desired concentrations were prepared and set to be stretched on glass or nonwoven polyester with adjustable thickness. Then the film of solution was transferred into supercritical cell. Carbon dioxide was used as anti-solvent and it causes super saturation in solution.
    In order to investigate the effect of operating parameters on membrane structure, pore size and porosity were considered as a symbol of membrane structure. These parameters include cell pressure and polysulfone concentration.

    Improve Performance of Polyamide Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Crosslinking Treatments

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Safaeifakhr, Alireza (Author) ; Mousavi, Abbas (Supervisor)
    Reverse osmosis membranes are one of the most common methods of desalination of water in the world today. In the meantime, aromatic polyamide thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes have one of the best performances and can be widely used in industry. This project aims to make surface modifications on the made raw membranes and increase the degree of crosslinking to improve the functional properties of the membrane, such as the percentage of salt rejection and the flux of permeate, and the reduction of fouling. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol and l-arginine along with maleic anhydride as the crosslinking agent and hexamethylene diisocyanate were used for surface modification of the...