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    Manufacturing and Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation Reaction Catalyst for Methanol Production

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Esmaeili, Mohammad (Author) ; Fotovat, Farzam (Supervisor) ; Zamaniyan, Akbar (Supervisor) ; Zamani, Yahya (Co-Supervisor) ; Rashidzadeh, Mehdi (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol represents a promising route for the efficient use of an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, in which catalysts play a key role in carbon dioxide conversion and methanol selectivity. In this study, firstly, CuO-ZnO-Al2O3, CuO-ZnO-ZrO2, CuO-ZnO-ZrO2-Al2O3, CuO-ZnO-Al2O3-CeO2 and CuO-ZnO-ZrO2-CeO2 catalysts were made using co-precipitation method, then these catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, specific surface area and pore size distribution, X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, temperature programmed reduction. Finally, in order to compare the performance of the catalysts... 

    Synthesis of Nano H-ZSM-5 for Methanol Conversion to Propylene

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Firoozi, Mohammad (Author) ; Baghghalha, Morteza (Supervisor) ; Asadi, Mousa (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Nano and microsize H-ZSM-5 were synthesized by hydrothermal crystallization method with same batch composition to investigate the effect of crystallite size of H-ZSM-5 in the methanol conversion to propylene (MTP) process. The average particle size of nano and microsize H-ZSM-5 were obtained in the range of 0.15- 0.2 and 1- 2 µm, respectively. Also, optimized catalyst of Petrochemical Research and Technology Company was synthesized using terapropylammonium bromide as template. Nowadays, terapropylammonium bromide (TPABr) is cheeper than terapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH); therefore we used it as tamplate. Activity tests were conducted at operating conditions of T= 460˚C, P=1 atm and WHSV... 

    Synthesis of MoS2 Nanoparticles and Their Application as Nanocatalyst for Hydrodesulfurization Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Parviz, Dorsa (Author) ; Kazemeini, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Rashidi, Alimorad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Highly active unsupported MoO3 and (Co) MoO3 catalysts were synthesized utilizing the solution combustion method where the Ammonium molybdate powder and an organic additive were used as precursors. Different organic materials including Ethylene Diamin Tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), Polyethylene Glycol 200 (PEG 200), Sorbitol and Urea were used as additive in order to investigate the effect of additive structure on morphology and particle size of products. Also various reaction parameters such as the additive/Mo molar ratio, concentration of metal ion in solution, pH of the reaction and temperature of the synthesis media were changed to study effects on product morphology and size. Outcomes were... 

    Investigation on Optical and Catalytic Properties of Noble Metallic Nanoparticles in SiO2 and TiO2 Matrix

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Sangpour, Parvaneh (Author) ; Moshfegh, Alireza (Supervisor) ; Akhavan, Omid (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Doping metal or semiconductor nanoparticles in transparent matrix have attracted much attention for practical application in recent years. From fundamental veiw point, limiting the charge carriers and exitons in nanometric scales resulted in new quantum phenomena. In this context, transparent films containing metal nanoparticles shows an absorption peak in visible region of spectrom. Thus, by choosing an appropriate metal and controlling the size and concentration of particles in corresponding matrix, we can provide coatings with a wide rang of colors. Furthermore, thin films containing metal or metal oxide nanoparticles had been considered as nanostructure materials in research and... 

    Synthesis and Activity Test of Dehydrogenation Catalyst for C10-C14 Paraffin

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mamanpoush, Mahdi (Author) ; Baghghalha, Morteza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Dehydrogenation of C10-C14 normal paraffins on Pt/alumina catalyst is a reaction of prime importance particularly to the detergent industry for the manufacture of the active ingredients. In this thesis, the modifying effect of Zn, Li, K, and Mg on the activity and selectivity of the Pt-Sn/γ-Al2O3 dehydrogenation catalysts were investigated. The catalysts were prepared by co-impregnation, characterized by TPR, BET, SEM, EDAX and XRD techniques and tested in a tubular reactor. Zinc reduced the activity of Pt-Sn alloy and hence reduced the catalyst activity in the dehydrogenation reaction and enhanced its selectivity to normal mono olefins. The addition of Li, K, and Mg to Pt-Sn/γ-Al2O3... 

    Study of Deactivation of Carbon Nanotubes Supported on Cobalt Catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karimi Davani, Zahra (Author) ; Kazemeini, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Rohani, Ali Asghar (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Purified RIPI–CNT was used as support material for the preparation of cobalt FTS catalysts. Carbon nanotubes supported catalysts (S1–S4) were prepared with loadings of 15, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%. The FT synthesis was carried out in a fixed-bed micro reactor. Deactivation factors of cobalt catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes in FT synthesis is investigated. Using carbon nanotubes as cobalt catalyst support was found to cause the reduction temperature of cobalt oxide species to shift to lower temperatures. The strong metal-support interactions are reduced to a large extent and the reducibility of the catalysts improved significantly. Then, the main reason for the catalyst deactivation will be... 

    AlV Alloy by Aluminothermic Reduction of Vanadium Pentoxide

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Saboor Bagherzadeh, Elahe (Author) ; Halali, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the present work, aluminothermic reduction of vanadium pentoxide have been used to produce aluminium vanadium alloys. The effect of addition of lime and excess aluminium on the produced alloy was studied. The experiments were carried out in air and in argon. The alloys microstructure were analyzed bu light and scanning electron microscopy. Other methods such as XRD, XRF, ICP, AAS and titration were employed to analyzed the alloy and the slag. It was found that the addition of lime and excess aluminium increase the yield of the alloy. Vanadium recovery was not affected by the atmosphere used.
     

    Regeneration of Cobalt from Catalyst Deactivated in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ahmadi, Ali Akbar (Author) ; Kazemeini, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Rohani, Ali Asghar (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this work hydrometallurgical route for processing spent commercial catalysts (Co/Al2O3) are investigated for leaching the Cobalt component. The used catalysts were initially pre-oxidized at 500 °C and 5 h in order to eliminate coke and other volatile species present. Pre-oxidized catalysts were dissolved in solvents such as H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H2O at 80-90 °C, and the remaining residues separated from the solution. These experiments were performed at different concentrations, presence and absence H2O2 solution. Also effect of reflux on leaching process investigated. The result show the yield of the pre-oxidized catalysts extracted with highly concentration of extractant is higher than... 

    Coke Deposition Process in Nano-Pores of Naphtha Reforming Catalyst

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Farahipour, Reza (Author) ; Baghalha, Morteza (Supervisor) ; Kazemeini, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Nowadays catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the most important parts of the refining process. The catalyst of this process is mostly Pt-Re on the γ-alumina support. The major cause of deactivation is coke deposition and blockage of the pores as a result. Meanwhile, modeling of the process and the deactivation of catalyst would help refining industries to achieve higher yields. In this study industrial data of the catalytic reforming unit #2 in Isfahan Refinery Plant were used to model the process, optimized parameters have been calculated and the best contribution of the catalyst among the four reactors was presented. Then with using a deactivation function the whole coking... 

    Controlled Microwave-assisted Synthesis of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles and Investigation of their Catalytic Activity in Organic Reactions

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Doulabi, Malihe (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully prepared through a controlled microwave–assisted co-precipitation as well as conventional co-precipitation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used for the structural, morphological and magnetic investigation of the product. Average particle size was obtained as 12 nm from XRD. Catalytic activity of ZnFe2O4 nanopowder for O-acylation of alcohol and phenol has been investigated. A trace amount of ZnFe2O4 has been effectively used as a nanocatalyst for the acylation of alcohol and phenol in acetic anhydride.

     

    Synthesis of a Nanocatalyst for Selective Hydrogenation of Acetylene in Presence of Ethylene

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bazzazzadegan, Hadi (Author) ; Kazemeini, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Rashidi, Ali Morad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this research a novel palladium nanocatalyst was synthesized over single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) support and then applied in the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in an ethylene rich-flow stream. This nanocatalyst displayed a very promising selectivity toward ethylene production upon rising of the temperature, as well as suppressing oligomer formation during acetylene hydrogenation. It was rationalized that the overwhelming governing mechanism for the acetylene hydrogenation over the 0.48 wt% Pd/SWNT was the hydrogen transfer. Furthermore, new operating conditions for selective hydrogenation of acetylene in ethylene rich-flow were introduced through which the selective... 

    Modeling Catalyst Deactivation in Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene to Styrene

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Babaei Matin, Jalal (Author) ; Baghghalha, Morteza (Supervisor) ; Ghotbi, Siroos (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Long-term deactivation of a commercial K-promoted Fe2O3 catalyst used in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene monomer was studied using thirty months of operating data of three industrial SM radial fixed bed adiabatic reactors. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood, Hougen-Watson model (LHHW) was used for reaction kinetics modeling. The kinetics of coking from ethylbenzene and styrene and the short-term deactivation function due to the quick coke formation were also considered in the model. The kinetics of long-term deactivation of the catalyst for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene between 550 and 630 °C were determined by allowing the effects of temperature and time on the catalyst... 

    Preparation of Claus Nanocatalyst for Replacing the Commercial Catalyst

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rezaee, Mohammad (Author) ; Kazemini, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Rashidi, Ali Morad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur in a fixed bed reactor over seven nanocatalysts has been investigated and compared to commercial claus catalyst. Among them, Al2O3-supported sodium oxide nanocatalyst prepared with wet chemical technique and Al2O3 nanocatalyst prepared with spray pyrolysis method were the most active catalysts for selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. The remaining nanocatalysts were deactivated, mainly due to the interaction with H2S and conversion into sulfides. For synthesis of Al2O3 with spray pyrolysis method we use statistical design of experiments (box-behnken design) in order to screen the effects of significant synthesizing parameters  

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hatami, Mojgan (Author) ; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Inert gold become catalytically active when dispersed in the form of nanoparticles. Isolated gold nanoparticles have demonstrated high catalytic activity for both oxidation and reduction reactions. In order to obtain high catalytic activity, gold nanoparticles are generally dispersed on support materials, among which oxides are commonly used. However, a substantial decrease in activity and selectivity of the immobilized catalysts is frequently observed due to the heterogeneous nature of these support materials in reaction media. In the course of our study on the metal-based catalysis for synthesis of organic compounds, we herein report that rod-shaped Au nanoparticles in aqua solution... 

    Investigation Properties of Polypropylene/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Prepared via in Situ Polymerization Using Bi-Supported Ziegler Natta Catalyst

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jafari Esfad, Narjes (Author) ; Ramezani Saadatabadi, Ahmad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this research polypropylene/carbon nanotube nano composites were prepared via in situ polymerization using Bi-supported Ziegler-Natta catalytic systems. Magnesium etoxide and Multi wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNT) functionalized by hydroxyl groups were used as supports of catalyst. TiCl4 and TiBA were used as catalyst and co catalyst respectively. After defining the polymerization optimum conditions and considering its parameters constant, nano composites with different carbon nanotube contents were produced by changing the polymerization time. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images certified very good dispersion of MWCNTs throughout polypropylene matrix. The thermal properties behavior of... 

    Michael Addition of Anthrone to Nitroolefines in Water and Oxidation of Alkenes Using a Supported Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karimi, Nafiseh (Author) ; Saeedi, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor) ; Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim (Supervisor) ; Rajabi, Fatemeh (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    This projct includes the following sections: In the first section, Michael addition reaction of anthrone to nitroolefins is described in water without using any catalyst to prepare 9-(2-nitro-1-arylethyl)anthracene-10(9H)-ones. This method is green, efficient and gives high yields of products. The solvent effect is also investigated. In the second section, Considerable efforts have been directed in recent years towards the transition metal complex catalyzed oxidation of organic compounds such as olefins, sulfides, benzylics alcohols and phenolics. And due to the various advantages of supported heterogeneous catalysts and in our aim to develop a simple, more efficient and eco-friendly... 

    Application of Bioleaching Technology in Extraction of Metals from Spent Catalysts of Petroleum Refinery

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Amiri, Farnaz (Author) ; Yaghmaei, Soheyla (Supervisor) ; Mousavi, Mohammad (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    In this project, bioleaching has been investigated as a solution for detoxification and metal recovery of spent hydrocracking catalysts of Tehran petroleum refinery which is listed as a hazardous waste. In this project four stages has been accomplished as follows: 1- Adaptation of Penicillium simplicissimum and Aspergillus niger with different heavy metals present in a spent hydrocracking catalyst, individually and with mixture of metals as well as adaptation by spent catalyst which the cumulative action of multi-metals enhanced the toxic effect; 2- The one-step, two-step, and spent medium bioleaching of the spent catalyst by the adapted fungi in batch cultures were investigated and... 

    Optimizing Structure of Catalysts and Development of Kinetic Parameters for Synthesis Gas to Olefin Reaction

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Shayegh, Flora (Author) ; Ghotbi, Siroos (Supervisor) ; Bozorg Mehri, Ramin (Supervisor) ; Zarrinpashne, Saeid (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Synthesis gas to light olefin reactions especially propylene production is one of the important path for clean fuel production in gas conversion processes. The object of this study is to define true kinetic model of process first step (e.g. Synthesis gas to light Olefins). For that, kinetic model for Co/Mn/TiO2 catalyst, which has the best conversion and selectivity for propylene, has been developed. Kinetic reaction parameters were measured by kinetic modeling in (220-300)0C temperature , (1-5)bar pressure , H2/CO=(1:3) and (450-600)hr-1 space velocity .After studying with significant models ,the best fitting can obtained with "KPCO P 1/2H2/(1+aPco+bPH2 1/2)2"equation. Later to... 

    Optimization of Effective Parameters in Biological Extraction of Mo and Ni from Spent Catalyst

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghojavand, Fatemeh (Author) ; Yaghmaei, Soheila (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    During oil refinement, solid catalysts which contain metals such as aluminum, tungstan, molybdenum and nickel are highly used. Following several times reductions and re-applications, their activity potentiality is decreased in a such a way that they can not be re-used., as a result of which they are treated as solid waste. Based on natural potentiality, microorganisms are defined as convertibles of solid compounds to extractive forms and soluble materials. This project aims at finding other factors that have more impact on biological extraction and determining optimal conditions for biological extraction in order to reach maximum extraction efficiency within discontinuous conditions. The... 

    Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles and Study on its Application as a Catalyst and an Adsorbent of the Radioactive Elements

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mehdizadeh, Sofia (Author) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Ahmadi, Javad (Supervisor) ; Sadjadi, Sodeh (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    The present study was aimed at investigating the use of platinum and platinum nanoparticles stabilized on zeolite as catalyst for the reduction reaction of p-nitrotoluene as one of the dangerous pollutants. The adsorption properties of platinum based on zeolite have been studied for some heavy metals. Monodispersed platinum nanoparticles were synthesized through reduction of H2PtCl6 by ethanol in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer, and then were immobilized on four types of zeolites. The study then focused on elaboration of the catalytic activity of the nano catalysts under different operational conditions. In order to investigate the catalytic properties, operating...