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    Detailed analysis of the effects of biodiesel fraction increase on the combustion stability and characteristics of a reactivity‐ controlled compression ignition diesel‐biodiesel/natural gas engine

    , Article Energies ; Volume 15, Issue 3 , 2022 ; 19961073 (ISSN) Zarrinkolah, M. T ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI  2022
    Abstract
    A single‐cylinder marine diesel engine was modified to be operated in reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode. The engine fueling system was upgraded to a common rail fuel injection system. Natural gas (NG) was used as port fuel injection, and a die-sel/sunflower methyl ester biodiesel mixture was used for direct fuel injection. The fraction of bio-diesel in the direct fuel injection was changed from 0% (B0; 0% biodiesel and 100% diesel) to 5% (B5) and 20% (B20) while keeping the total energy input into the engine constant. The objective was to understand the impacts of the increased biodiesel fraction on the combustion characteristics and stability, emissions, and... 

    Large eddy simulation of GDI single-hole and multi-hole injector sprays with comparison of numerical break-up models and coefficients

    , Article Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics ; Volume 9, Issue 2 , 2016 , Pages 1013-1022 ; 17353572 (ISSN) Zamani, H ; Hosseini, V ; Afshin, H ; Allocca, L ; Baloo, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Isfahan University of Technology  2016
    Abstract
    In the present study the fuel spray of a gasoline direct injected engine with multi-hole injector is simulated. Simulation inputs data, injection flow rate and spray cone angle are obtained from previous experimental studies. Log-normal distribution with different standard deviation is used for initial droplet size as the primary break-up model in order to reach the agreement between experimental and calculated spray tip penetration. As the first step, only one plume of spray injected into a quiescent air environment is simulated and validated by varying break-up model and standard deviation. Then, with coefficient obtained from the single jet simulation all six spray jets are simulated... 

    Chemical speciation of pm2.5 in tehran: quantification of dust contribution and model validation

    , Article Atmospheric Pollution Research ; Volume 11, Issue 10 , 2020 , Pages 1839-1846 Yasar, M ; Lai, A. M ; de Foy, B ; Schauer, J. J ; Arhami, M ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    Each year, considerable levels of dust particles coming from arid regions of the earth contribute to the atmosphere. Because dust has serious environmental and human health effects, predictions of dust concentrations and their contribution to PM surface concentrations are essential for atmospheric research and the implementation of air quality programs and rules. This study aims to assess dust contributions to PM2.5 in Tehran in order to provide guidance for air quality management systems as well as validate the updated Dust Regional Atmospheric Model version 2 (BSC-DREAM8b) and the NMMB/BSC-Dust model using chemical speciation of ground-based measurements of PM2.5. Accurate and reliable... 

    Investigating various effects of reformer gas enrichment on a natural gas-fueled HCCI combustion engine

    , Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Vol. 39, issue. 34 , November , 2014 , p. 19799-19809 Voshtani, S ; Reyhanian, M ; Ehteram, M ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion has the potential to work with high thermal efficiency, low fuel consumption, and extremely low NOx-PM emissions. In this study, zero-dimensional single-zone and quasi-dimensional multi-zone detailed chemical kinetics models were developed to predict and control an HCCI combustion engine fueled with a natural gas and reformer gas (RG) blend. The model was validated through experiments performed with a modified single-cylinder CFR engine. Both models were able to acceptably predict combustion initiation. The result shows that the chemical and thermodynamic effects of RG blending advance the start of combustion (SOC), whereas dilution... 

    Air pollution trends in Tehran and their anthropogenic drivers

    , Article Atmospheric Pollution Research ; Volume 11, Issue 3 , 2020 , Pages 429-442 Torbatian, S ; Hoshyaripour, A ; Shahbazi, H ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    An assessment of trends in main air pollutant concentrations (including CO, SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, and Asbestos) is conducted for the years 2005–2016 for the city of Tehran, Iran. The focus has been on the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the observed trend, particularly the role of related mitigation plans implemented in the period of interest. A significant decreasing trend (about 50%) was observed in CO and SO2 concentrations during the considered time interval, which was explained by improvement plans in fuel quality and vehicle emission standards. While a substantial elevation (more than 50%) in NO2 levels was detected over the study period, variant trends were observed during... 

    Black carbon and PM2.5 monitoring campaign on the roadside and residential urban background sites in the city of Tehran

    , Article Atmospheric Environment ; Volume 218 , 2019 ; 13522310 (ISSN) Taheri, A ; Aliasghari, P ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2019
    Abstract
    Fine particulate matter characterized as PM2.5 is the most important criteria air pollutant in the city of Tehran. Tehran is one of the most polluted cities of the Middle East based on annual mean PM2.5 concentrations. Tehran emission inventory shows the large contribution of mobile sources to the total particles. PM2.5 source apportionment studies show large fraction of black carbon (BC) in the total mass of PM2.5, especially during the cold seasons. BC is the product of incomplete combustion that is mainly derived from diesel engines and rich-burned gasoline carburetor engines on scooters and light-duty vehicles. The present study shows the results of a large experimental campaign in which... 

    Investigating the effect of the heat transfer correlation on the predictability of a multi-zone combustion model of a hydrogen-fuelled spark ignition engine

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering ; Volume 230, Issue 1 , 2016 , Pages 70-81 ; 09544070 (ISSN) Tabatabaie, T ; Ehteram, M. A ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd 
    Abstract
    Research on the heat transfer in hydrogen-fuelled spark ignition engines indicates that the two most common heat transfer correlations, namely the Annand correlation and the Woschni correlation, cannot perfectly predict the heat flux during the engine cycle. This questions the accuracy of thermodynamic hydrogen engine models because the heat transfer is one of the important submodels in the development of a thermodynamic model. In addition, the Hohenberg correlation and the Shudo-Suzuki correlation have not been evaluated for hydrogen engines. In this study, a thermodynamic model of the closed cycle of a spark ignition engine is developed with a multi-zone combustion submodel to predict the... 

    Network autoregressive model for the prediction of covid-19 considering the disease interaction in neighboring countries

    , Article Entropy ; Volume 23, Issue 10 , 2021 ; 10994300 (ISSN) Sioofy Khoojine, A ; Shadabfar, M ; Hosseini, V. R ; Kordestani, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI  2021
    Abstract
    Predicting the way diseases spread in different societies has been thus far documented as one of the most important tools for control strategies and policy-making during a pandemic. This study is to propose a network autoregressive (NAR) model to forecast the number of total currently infected cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran until the end of December 2021 in view of the disease interactions within the neighboring countries in the region. For this purpose, the COVID-19 data were initially collected for seven regional nations, including Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Thenceforth, a network was established over these countries, and the... 

    Corrigendum: “Particulate emissions of real-world light-duty gasoline vehicle fleet in Iran” (Environmental Pollution (2022) 292(PA), (118303), (S0269749121018856), (10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118303))

    , Article Environmental Pollution ; Volume 300 , 2022 ; 02697491 (ISSN) Shahne, M. Z ; Arhami, M ; El Haddad, I ; Abbaszade, G ; Schnelle Kreis, J ; Jaffrezo, J. L ; Prévôt, A. S. H ; Astaneh, M ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    The authors would like to inform you that some authors (Gülcin Abbaszade, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, André Prévôt, Mohammad Astaneh) were missed from the authorship which has been corrected above. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd  

    Particulate emissions of real-world light-duty gasoline vehicle fleet in Iran

    , Article Environmental Pollution ; Volume 292 , 2022 ; 02697491 (ISSN) Shahne, M. Z ; Arhami, M ; Hosseini, V ; Al Haddad, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Fine particulate matter cause profound adverse health effects in Iran. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in urban areas, and has a large contribution in PM2.5 and organic carbon concentration, in Tehran, Iran. The composition of fine PM vehicle emission is poorly known, so this paper aims to determine the mixed fleet source profile by using the analysed data from the two internal stations and the emission factor for PM light-duty vehicles emission. Tunnels are ideal media for extraction vehicle source profile and emission factor, due to vehicles are the only source of pollutant in the urban tunnels. In this study, PM samples were collected simultaneously in... 

    A GIS based emission inventory development for Tehran

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 17 , 2016 , Pages 216-229 ; 22120955 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Taghvaee, S ; Hosseini, V ; Afshin, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2016
    Abstract
    Tehran with a population of 8.2 million urban residents, suffers from rapid urbanization in recent years resulting in severe air pollution. The aim of this study is to develop a high resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants for Tehran. Tehran pollution sources are classified into two major categories. Mobile sources, including vehicles such as passenger car, taxi, motorcycle, pickup, minibus, bus and truck, and stationary sources; consisting of industries, general service and household, energy conversion, terminals and gas stations. The emission of SOx, NOx, CO, VOCs and PM in the year of 2013 were estimated as 37.411 kt, 85.524 kt, 506.690 kt, 83.640 kt and 8.496 kt,... 

    A novel regression imputation framework for Tehran air pollution monitoring network using outputs from WRF and CAMx models

    , Article Atmospheric Environment ; Volume 187 , 2018 , Pages 24-33 ; 13522310 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Karimi, S ; Hosseini, V ; Yazgi, D ; Torbatian, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    Missing or incomplete data in short or long intervals is a common problem in measuring air pollution. Severe issues may arise when dealing with missing data for time-series prediction schemes or mean analysis. This study aimed to develop a new regression imputation framework to impute missing values in the hourly air quality data set of Tehran and enhance the applicability of Tehran Air Pollution Forecasting System (TAPFS). The proposed framework was designed based on three types of features including measurements of other stations, WRF and CAMx physical models. In this framework, elastic net and neuro-fuzzy networks were efficiently combined in a two-layer structure. The framework was... 

    Assessment of emission reduction scenarios with a focus on the impact of vehicle fleets on tehran air quality: case study

    , Article Transportation Research Record ; Volume 2673, Issue 5 , 2019 , Pages 197-207 ; 03611981 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Hosseini, V ; Torbatian, S ; Hamedi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd  2019
    Abstract
    In recent years, the city of Tehran has frequently experienced severe air pollution episodes, and the increase in the use of vehicles has exacerbated this critical situation. It is unclear to what extent each vehicle category contributes to the production of pollution during a pollution event. For this purpose, a combination of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) modeling systems was used to simulate the distributions of pollutant concentrations over Tehran in a pollution episode from December 3 to 23, 2017. First, the performance of the modeling system was evaluated with respect to the simulation outputs against... 

    Evaluation of tehran clean air action plan using emission inventory approach

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 27 , 2019 , Pages 446-456 ; 22120955 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Hassani, A ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    The city of Tehran, the capital of Iran, has been facing severe air quality problems. The air quality of Tehran has been stated as unhealthy over one-third of year during the last two decades. According to the last emission inventory of Tehran for the base year of 2013 mobile sources contribute by about 6, 46, 98, 87, and 70% of total primary SOx, NOx, CO, VOC and PM emission. A number of policies have been implemented in Tehran during the last two decades to tackle the air quality issue. Concentrated mostly on transportation sector, these policies aimed to improve fuel quality and emission performance of vehicles. Nevertheless, there is no quantified evaluation regarding the effectiveness... 

    Impact of mobile source emission inventory adjustment on air pollution photochemical model performance

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 32 , 2020 Shahbazi, H ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    Coupled weather forecasting and chemical transport models are useful tools to evaluate air pollution episodes in big cities for the purpose of forecasting and air pollution abatement measures' evaluation. However, large set of accurate data of various sources and modeling calibrations are needed for such complex modeling system to be reliable. The problem becomes more obvious when the model is operated over a domain in which there is a general lack of accurate input data such as emission inventory data. The current study investigates the possibility of model tuning for more accurate prediction of air pollutant concentrations in the city of Tehran in an air pollution episode as a case study.... 

    Development of high-resolution emission inventory to study the relative contribution of a local power plant to criteria air pollutants and Greenhouse gases

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 38 , 2021 ; 22120955 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Abolmaali, A. M ; Alizadeh, H ; Salavati, H ; Zokaei, H ; Zandavi, R ; Torbatian, S ; Yazgi, D ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Abstract
    Electrification of energy systems, including an increased percentage of electric vehicles on the road, is one of the primary paths to achieve zero carbon emissions. However, a reduced share of fossil fuel in transportation and industry requires a significant shift in power generation energy sources. Power generation from renewable sources is still limited and will be for the foreseeable future. Developing countries and oil-producing nations in the middle east may shift to electric vehicles, but electricity energy sources will not be easily moved to renewables., A detailed and comprehensive emission inventory was developed in a bottom-up method for a typical populated city in Iran,... 

    An emission inventory update for Tehran: The difference between air pollution and greenhouse gas source contributions

    , Article Atmospheric Research ; Volume 275 , 2022 ; 01698095 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Abolmaali, A. M ; Alizadeh, H ; Salavati, H ; Zokaei, H ; Zandavi, R ; Torbatian, S ; Yazgi, D ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Many highly populated cities are still struggling to reach clean air targets, while the zero greenhouse gas emission objectives may accelerate the path toward healthy air for all. Still, there is a fine line between intensive electrification's impact on greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air contaminants depending on the source of the electricity. In this study, the previous version of the emission inventory for Tehran was evaluated and re-calculated in a detailed bottom-up approach to provide the most updated data on the contribution of stationary sources derived by power plants vs. mobile sources. The objectives were to update the emission inventory for improved policymaking, study the... 

    Time-variant reliability-based prediction of COVID-19 spread using extended SEIVR model and Monte Carlo sampling

    , Article Results in Physics ; Volume 26 , 2021 ; 22113797 (ISSN) Shadabfar, M ; Mahsuli, M ; Sioofy Khoojine, A ; Hosseini, V. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Abstract
    A probabilistic method is proposed in this study to predict the spreading profile of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United State (US) via time-variant reliability analysis. To this end, an extended susceptible-exposed-infected-vaccinated-recovered (SEIVR) epidemic model is first established deterministically, considering the quarantine and vaccination effects, and then applied to the available COVID-19 data from US. Afterwards, the prediction results are described as a time-series of the number of people infected, recovered, and dead. Upon introducing the extended SEIVR model into a limit-state function and defining the model parameters including transmission, recovery, and... 

    Various effects of reformer gas enrichment on natural-gas, iso-octane and normal-heptane HCCI combustion using artificial inert species method

    , Article Energy Conversion and Management ; Volume 159 , March , 2018 , Pages 7-19 ; 01968904 (ISSN) Reyhanian, M ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    Reformer gas (syngas) addition to main fuel is a practical solution for combustion timing control in HCCI engines. This study emphasizes the understanding of various effects of reformer gas (RG) addition, with composition of 75%vol H2 and 25%vol CO, in HCCI combustion by developing an artificial inert species method and using a detailed chemical kinetics multi-zone model. Three fuels (iso-octane, n-heptane, and natural gas) with different autoignition characteristics were used in this study. The developed multi-zone model was validated for mentioned fuels at various percentages of RG using six experimental cases of a single-cylinder CFR engine. The results showed that increasing reformer gas... 

    Investigation of the effect of reformer gas on PRFs HCCI combustion based on exergy analysis

    , Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Volume 41, Issue 7 , 2016 , Pages 4278-4295 ; 03603199 (ISSN) Neshat, E ; Saray, R. K ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2016
    Abstract
    Lack of a direct method to control combustion timing is one of the main disadvantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Fuel blending, in which two fuels with different auto-ignition characteristics are blended, can be used to control combustion timing. Utilizing different additives is another method for HCCI combustion control. The aim of this research is investigation on the effect of reformer gas addition on the availability terms in HCCI engines fueled with primary reference fuels (PRFs). A multi zone model (MZM) coupled with a semi detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is used for calculation of different terms of exergy analysis. Heat and mass transfer between...