Search for: physiological-models
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    Modeling the Relationship between Central Aortic Pressure and Radial Photoplethysmogram in Flow-mediated Dilation Test

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Parsafar, Mohammad Habib (Author) ; Vosughi Vahdat, Bijan (Supervisor) ; Zahedi, Edmond (Supervisor)
    According to the World Health Organization, about 35% of deaths worldwide are due to cardiovascular diseases, therefore the evaluation of vascular endothelial function has great prognostic and diagnostic value for cardiovascular diseases. The conventional noninvasive method for endothelial function evaluation is the measurement of flow-mediated dilation in brachial artery using ultrasound imaging (FMD-US). As the accuracy of FMD-US depends on the operator's skill and the resolution of the ultrasound images, this method has not been adopted. In this work, we propose to use a low cost, easily-accessible surrogate signal, the photoplethysmogram (PPG) to implement the FMD test. Whereas previous... 

    Modeling of Human Decision Making in Problem Solving Based on Physiological Models of Neuron

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Shirzadeh, Hossein (Author) ; Vosughi Vahdat, Bijan (Supervisor)
    How the human nervous system works is one of the most important topics in science and in this topic providing a model of it is scientists' main concern. The human brain that has been formed from a large number of nerve cells lets it do complex computations. The structure of cognition, memorizing and processing which are some of human features are being studied in many fields of science named "brain and cognitive science".
    In this study, we will point to modeling of one of the human cognitive phenomena (decision making in problem solving). In this modeling, we aim to connect the microscopic and macroscopic levels of the nervous system to each other.
    First, we will give an introduction... 

    Multidimensional modeling of the stenosed carotid artery: A novel CAD approach accompanied by an extensive lumped model

    , Article Acta Mechanica Sinica/Lixue Xuebao ; Vol. 30, issue. 2 , 2014 , p. 259-273 Kashefi, A ; Mahdinia, M ; Firoozabadi, B ; Amirkhosravi, M ; Ahmadi, G ; Saidi, M. S ; Sharif University of Technology
    This study describes a multidimensional 3D/lumped parameter (LP) model which contains appropriate inflow/outflow boundary conditions in order to model the entire human arterial trees. A new extensive LP model of the entire arterial network (48 arteries) was developed including the effect of vessel diameter tapering and the parameterization of resistance, conductor and inductor variables. A computer aided-design (CAD) algorithm was proposed to efficiently handle the coupling of two or more 3D models with the LP model, and substantially lessen the coupling processing time. Realistic boundary conditions and Navier-Stokes equations in healthy and stenosed models of carotid artery bifurcation... 

    Hyperthermia-induced protein corona improves the therapeutic effects of zinc ferrite spinel-graphene sheets against cancer

    , Article RSC Advances ; Vol. 4, issue. 107 , 2014 , p. 62557-62565 Hajipour, M. J ; Akhavan, O ; Meidanchi, A ; Laurent, S ; Mahmoudi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Superparamagnetic zinc ferrite spinel-graphene nanostructures were synthesized as potential therapeutic agents in the magnetic targeted photothermal therapy of cancer and/or drug delivery. The global temperature of the solution and the local temperature at the nanoparticle (NP) surface determine the protein corona composition/content, which in turn affects the biological effects of NPs and the corresponding physiological responses. Therefore, it is rational to hypothesize that spinel-graphene nanostructures may have distinct protein corona compositions and contents, and therapeutic and toxic effects under laser irradiation. To assess this hypothesis, the effects of laser irradiation on the... 

    A robotic model of transfemoral amputee locomotion for design optimization of knee controllers

    , Article International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems ; Volume 10 , 2013 ; 17298806 (ISSN) Shandiz, M. A ; Farahmand, F ; Osman, N. A. A ; Zohoor, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    A two-dimensional, seven link, nine degrees of freedom biped model was developed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of normal and transfemoral amputee locomotion during the entire gait cycle. The equations of motion were derived using the Lagrange method and the stance foot-ground contact was simulated using a five-point penetration model. The joint driving torques were obtained using forward dynamic optimization of the normal human gait and applied to the intact joints of the amputee. Three types of motion controllers; frictional, elastic and hydraulic were considered for the prosthetic joints of the amputee and their design parameters were optimized to achieve the closest... 

    A novel distributed model of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine ; Volume 227, Issue 4 , 2013 , Pages 362-372 ; 09544119 (ISSN) Ravanshadi, S ; Jahed, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Conventional models of cardiovascular system frequently lack required detail and focus primarily on the overall relationship between pressure, flow and volume. This study proposes a localized and regional model of the cardiovascular system. It utilizes noninvasive blood flow and pressure seed data and temporal cardiac muscle regional activity to predict the operation of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions. The analysis considers specific regions of the heart, namely, base, mid and apex of left ventricle. The proposed method of parameter estimation for hydraulic electric analogy model is recursive least squares algorithm. Based on simulation results and comparison... 

    Modelling and analysis of the effect of angular velocity and acceleration on brain strain field in traumatic brain injury

    , Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) ; Volume 3 A , 2013 ; 9780791856215 (ISBN) Hoursan, H ; Ahmadian, M. T ; Barari, A ; Beidokhti, H. N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been known as one of the most anonymous reasons for death around the world. A presentation of a model of what happens in the process has been under study for many years; and yet it remains a question due to physiological, geometrical and computational complications. Although the facilities for soft tissue modeling have improved and the precise CT-imaging of human head has revealed novel details of brain, skull and the interface (the meninges), a comprehensive FEM model of TBI is still being studied. This study aims to present an optimized model of human head including the brain, skull, and the meninges after a comprehensive study of the previous models.... 

    Introducing a distributed model of the heart

    , Article Proceedings of the IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, 24 June 2012 through 27 June 2012 ; June , 2012 , Pages 419-424 ; 21551774 (ISSN) ; 9781457711992 (ISBN) Ravanshadi, S ; Jahed, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Conventional models of cardiovascular system (CV) frequently lack required detail. Once utilized to study the heart function, these models focus primarily on the overall relationship between pressure, flow and volume. This study proposes a localized and regional model of the CV system. It utilizes non-invasive blood flow and pressure seed data and temporal cardiac muscle regional activation to predict the operation of the heart. Proposed localized analysis considers specific regions of the heart, namely base, mid and apex sections of the left ventricle. This modular system is based on a hydraulic electric analogy model, estimating desired parameters, namely resistance (R), compliance (C),... 

    Efficient biodegradation of naphthalene by a newly characterized indigenous achromobacter sp. FBHYA2 isolated from Tehran oil refinery complex

    , Article Water Science and Technology ; Volume 66, Issue 3 , March , 2012 , Pages 594-602 ; 02731223 (ISSN) Farjadfard, S ; Borghei, S. M ; Hassani, A. H ; Yakhchali, B ; Ardjmand, M ; Zeinali, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    IWA Pub  2012
    A bacterial strain, FBHYA2, capable of degrading naphthalene, was isolated from the American Petroleum Institute (API) separator of the Tehran Oil Refinery Complex (TORC). Strain FBHYA2 was identified as Achromobacter sp. based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and also phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The optimal growth conditions for strain FBHYA2 were pH 6.0, 30°C and 1.0% NaCl. Strain FBHYA2 can utilize naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy and was able to degrade naphthalene aerobically very fast, 48 h for 96% removal at 500 mg/L concentration. The physiological response of Achromobacter sp., FBHYA2 to several hydrophobic chemicals... 

    A unimodal person authentication system based on signing sound

    , Article Proceedings - IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics: Global Grand Challenge of Health Informatics, BHI 2012 ; 2012 , Pages 152-154 ; 9781457721779 (ISBN) Khazaei, D ; Maghooli, K ; Afdideh, F ; Azimi, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    IEEE  2012
    Person authentication based on only the name, password or person identification number is not secured enough. In recent years researchers have focused on human physiological and behavioral parameters, because these parameters are more unique and human-specific than traditional ones. This approach of person authentication is usually called biometric authentication. Signature is the most commonly used behavioral biometric which is investigated in two ways of online and offline by researchers. In online procedure, the temporal indices of signature such as signing velocity, and acceleration are involved to increase the accuracy relative to offline methods and to recognize counterfeit signatures.... 

    A detailed and validated three dimensional dynamic model of the patellofemoral joint

    , Article Journal of Biomechanical Engineering ; Volume 134, Issue 4 , 2012 ; 01480731 (ISSN) Akbar, M ; Farahmand, F ; Jafari, A ; Foumani, M. S ; Sharif University of Technology
    A detailed 3D anatomical model of the patellofemoral joint was developed to study the tracking, force, contact and stability characteristics of the joint. The quadriceps was considered to include six components represented by 15 force vectors. The patellar tendon was modeled using four bundles of viscoelastic tensile elements. Each of the lateral and medial retinaculum was modeled by a three-bundle nonlinear spring. The femur and patella were considered as rigid bodies with their articular cartilage layers represented by an isotropic viscoelastic material. The geometrical and tracking data needed for model simulation, as well as validation of its results, were obtained from an in vivo... 

    A multiscale phase field method for joint segmentation-rigid registration application to motion estimation of human knee joint

    , Article Biomedical Engineering - Applications, Basis and Communications ; Volume 23, Issue 6 , 2011 , Pages 445-456 ; 10162372 (ISSN) Eslami, A ; Esfandiarpour, F ; Shakourirad, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Image based registration of rigid objects has been frequently addressed in the literature to obtain an object's motion parameters. In this paper, a new approach of joint segmentation-rigid registration, within the variational framework of the phase field approximation of the Mumford-Shah's functional, is proposed. The defined functional consists of two Mumford-Shah equations, extracting the discontinuity set of the reference and target images due to a rigid spatial transformation. Multiscale minimization of the proposed functional after finite element discretization provided a sub-pixel, robust algorithm for edge extraction as well as edge based rigid registration. The implementation... 

    Variations in trunk muscle activities and spinal loads following posterior lumbar surgery: A combined in vivo and modeling investigation

    , Article Clinical Biomechanics ; Volume 30, Issue 10 , 2015 , Pages 1036-1042 ; 02680033 (ISSN) Jamshidnejad, S ; Arjmand, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Background Iatrogenic injuries to paraspinal muscles during posterior lumbar surgery cause a reduction in their contractile cross-sectional area and thus presumably their postoperative activation. This study investigates the effect of such intraoperative injuries on postoperative patterns of muscle activations and spinal loads during various activities using a combined modeling and in vivo MR imaging approach. Methods A three-dimensional, multi-joint, musculoskeletal model was used to estimate pre- and postoperative muscle forces and spinal loads under various activities in upright and flexed postures. According to our in vivo pre- and postoperative (∼ 6 months) measurements in six patients... 

    Prosthetic knee using of hybrid concept of magnetorheological brake with a T-shaped drum

    , Article 2015 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA 2015, 2 August 2015 through 5 August 2015 ; Aug , 2015 , Pages 721-726 ; 9781479970964 (ISBN) Sayyaadi, H ; Zareh, S. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2015
    This paper focuses on developing a new configuration on magnetorheological (MR) brake damper as prosthetic knee. Knee uses magnetic fields to vary the viscosity of the MR fluid, and thereby its flexion resistance. Exerted transmissibility torque of the knee greatly depends on the magnetic field intensity in the MR fluid. In this study a rotary damper using MR fluid is addressed in which a single rotary disc will act as a brake while MR fluid is activated by magnetic field in different walking gait. The main objective of this study is to investigate a prosthetic knee with one activating rotary disc to accomplish necessary braking torque in walking gait via implementing of Newton's equation of... 

    Cuff-less high-accuracy calibration-free blood pressure estimation using pulse transit time

    , Article Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 24 May 2015 through 27 May 2015 ; Volume 2015-July , 2015 , Pages 1006-1009 ; 02714310 (ISSN) ; 9781479983919 (ISBN) Kachuee, M ; Kiani, M.M ; Mohammadzade, H ; Shabany, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2015
    Recently a few methods have been proposed in the literature for non-invasive cuff-less estimation of systolic and diastolic blood pressures. One of the most prominent methods is to use the Pulse Transit Time (PTT). Although it is proven that PTT has a strong correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, this relation is highly dependent to each individuals physiological properties. Therefore, it requires per person calibration for accurate and reliable blood pressure estimation from PTT, which is a big drawback. To alleviate this issue, in this paper, a novel method is proposed for accurate and reliable estimation of blood pressure that is calibration-free. This goal is... 

    Effect of body weight on spinal loads in various activities: A personalized biomechanical modeling approach

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 48, Issue 2 , 2015 , Pages 276-282 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Hajihosseinali, M ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Epidemiological studies are divided over the causative role of body weight (BW) in low back pain. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable approach to examine the effect of changes in BW on spinal loads and risk of back pain. Changes in BW have not been properly simulated by previous models as associated alterations in model inputs on the musculature and moment arm of gravity loads have been neglected. A detailed, multi-joint, scalable model of the thoracolumbar spine is used to study the effect of BW (varying at five levels, i.e., 51, 68, 85, 102, and 119kg) on the L5-S1 spinal loads during various static symmetric activities while scaling moment arms and physiological cross-sectional areas of... 

    Effect of stimuli-responsive nano haydrogel finishing on cotton fabric properties

    , Article Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research ; Volume 40, Issue 4 , 2015 , Pages 431-436 ; 09710426 (ISSN) Bashari, A ; Hemmati Nejad, N ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR)  2015
    Cotton fabrics have been prepared with smart properties by functional finishing with stimuli-responsive nano gel. A biopolymer (chitosan) and a synthetic polymer (poly-NiPAAm) have been used for the synthesis of nano gel through semi-batch surfactant-free dispersion polymerization (SB-SFDP) method. The incorporation of nano gel to textile fabrics is achieved by pad-dry-cure procedure, using an aqueous nano gel dispersion and 1,2,3,4-butantetracarboxylic acid as a crosslinking agent. With this cross linking method, it is possible to integrate the nano gel into the cotton fabric’s structure with good resistance to washing. The changes in physiological comfort parameters of cotton fabric such... 

    Dynamic simulation of the biped normal and amputee human gait

    , Article Mobile Robotics: Solutions and Challenges - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2009, 9 September 2009 through 11 September 2009, Istanbul ; 2010 , Pages 1113-1120 ; 9814291269 (ISBN) ; 9789814291262 (ISBN) Shandiz, M. A ; Farahmand, F ; Zohour, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    A two-dimensional seven link biped dynamic model was developed to investigate the mechanical characteristics of the normal and amputee locomotion during the complete gait cycle. The foot-ground contact was simulated using a five-point penetration contact model. The equations of motion were derived using Lagrange method. Optimization of the normal human walking model provided constant coefficients for the driving torque equations that could reasonably reproduce the normal kinematical pattern. The resulting torques were then applied to the intact joints of the amputee model with a prosthetic leg equipped with a kinematical driver controller for the ankle and either a hydraulic, elastic or... 

    Tracking the 3D configuration of human joint using an MR image registration technique

    , Article ASME 2010 5th Frontiers in Biomedical Devices Conference and Exhibition, BIOMED 2010, 20 September 2010 through 21 September 2010 ; 2010 , Pages 93-94 ; 9780791849453 (ISBN) Mostafavi Yazdi, S. K ; Farahmand, F ; Jafari, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Surface registration is a necessary step and widely used in medical image-aided surgery. It's relevance to medical imaging is that there is much useful anatomical information in the form of collected surface points which originate from complimentary modalities. In this study, the kinematic relations between two point clouds with different coordinate definitions have been generated. Using Influence Method of surface modeling for extracting point clouds functions, the transformation matrix would be resulted. The proposed method was applied for an experimental femur data points(651 points) using the MRI images. These data points were transformed in a 30 degrees flexion of knee. This... 

    A new mathematical approach for detection of active area in human brain fMRI using nonlinear model

    , Article Biomedical Engineering - Applications, Basis and Communications ; Volume 22, Issue 5 , 2010 , Pages 409-418 ; 10162372 (ISSN) Taalimi, A ; Fatemizadeh, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely-used for detection of the brain's neural activity. The signals and images acquired through this imaging technique demonstrate the human brain's response to pre-scheduled tasks. Several studies on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal responses demonstrate nonlinear behavior in response to a stimulus. In this paper we propose a new mathematical approach for modeling BOLD signal activity, which is able to model nonlinear and time variant behaviors of this physiological system. We employ the Nonlinear Auto Regressive Moving Average (NARMA) model to describe the mathematical relationship between output signals and predesigned...