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    Studying Impediments Social Learning in Economic Policymaking Community of Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ahmadpour Samani, Narjes (Author) ; Mashayekhi, Ali Naghi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Social learning approach in economic policymaking is introduced against conflict-based approach in the similar context. Helco, 1973 first studied the effects of such a learning in economic policymaking and said ”men collectively wondering what to do… Governments not only ‘power’… they also puzzle.” The important point in studying policymaking through social learning approach is paradigm shifts in peoples’ mental models. In this approach, policies are not only the result of conflict between different interests but also are the output of a learning process. In this research we first assume that social learning has not occurred in policymaking community and that individual learning has... 

    (Assessing the Role of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology on Iran’s Oncoming Energy System(Technology Deployment Policy Making

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Banan, Zoya (Author) ; Maleki, Abbas (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Based on International Energy Agency studies, achievement of 450 ppm CO2-equivalent emission target in global emission means that the CO2 emissions in 2050 must be reduced to %50 of 2005 level, and this implies that a portfolio of emission reduction policies and strategies need to be exploited through current century.
    At the present time, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology is a dominant strategy among all the long-term carbon abatement strategies in many countries. Nevertheless, its potential as a climate mitigating option will be proved, only if it is implemented in the countries which are developing at a great pace and taking advantage of fossil fuels in order to afford their... 

    The Impact of Unconditional Cash Subsidies on the time Allocation of Household by using “Dose-Response Function”

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yousefzadeh Ravizi, Mahsa (Author) ; Keshavarz Haddad, Gholamreza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This study aims to estimate impact of the energy subsidy reform on households’ head time allocation in rural and urban areas in to 2011 to 2013 by making use of treatment effect particularly dose response function approach. Our main contribution is estimation and calculation of labor supply reaction to the unconditional cash transfer by dose of the subsidy that they received, while the previous works in this literature have used the well know binary variable of being in the exposure of program. To control for the demand determinants which are deriving the labor demand, we include the province level GDP and unemployment rate in the model. Our findings show that the subsidy dose does not have... 

    Modeling the Operation of a General Insurance Company with System Dynamics Approach

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Haghighattalab, Peyman (Author) ; Kianfar, Farhad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Market share of some private insurance companies in Iran has demonstrated upward and then downward trends over the years . Due to the similarity of conditions among all companies, the internal structure of companies is the main reason for the creation such trends. The operation of insurance companies has a lot of feedback mechanisms and delay relationships. In this research for purpose of modeling a holistic and comprehensive view and understanding the structure of private insurance companies in Iran, feedbacks and delay relations System dynamics approach is used. The developed model structure consists of five interconnected modules, each representing a relatively detached sphere of... 

    Human Capital Development and Utilization Methodology in a Public Sector Organization: Dynamic Capability Approach

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Esmailzadeh Azari, Amir (Author) ; Kermanshah, Ali (Supervisor) ; Sanjari, Ahmad Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    It is proposed, in this research, a methodology for a public sector organization to integrate policy making in human capital development and utilization area. In this case the researcher used system dynamics method for modeling and analyzing the situation, to describe the mechanisms that produce the difficulties in the organization. The researcher mentioned the differences between public sector and profit organization, in designing the main part of the model and also the use of dynamic capability approach in designing human capital development parts of it. The model built in this research, describe the events before and after the 1990s separately, according to the different policy making... 

    Real Option Model for Selecting the Optimum Portfolio of Oil and Gas Projects and Determining the Optimal Time for Applying Real Option

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology (Author) ; Modarres Yazdi, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Iran has the third largest reservoirs of oil and the second largest reservoirs of gas and has the greatest hydrocarbon reservoirs worldwide. Considering the fact that production of oil is highly dependent on gas injection, Iran is facing a great challenge in determining proper strategy for consuming natural gas. Due to the lack of proper strategy form the point of view of economical as well as scientific evaluation in political and social aspects, it has resulted in weakening Iran’s place in international markets and also reduction of oil wells’ productions.In this study, after a review of relevant literature, characteristics of oil and gas projects effective on modeling them were... 

    Measuring Economic Uncertainty in Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghodsizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi (Author) ; Nili, Masoud (Supervisor) ; Joshaghani, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Uncertainty is one of the factors influencing the decision making of economic actors which has a long history in the literature of economics. Given that uncertainty is a mental concept, measuring it has always been a problem. In economic research, the instability caused by uncertainty is often used as an indicator of uncertainty. In this thesis, three indices for economic uncertainty in Iran are introduced: an indicator for macro-level uncertainty using fluctuations in macroeconomic variables, an indicator for micro-level uncertainty using micro-level variables and another indicator called the index of economic policy uncertainty index, Which was made by reviewing the newspapers and opinions... 

    Developing a Decision Support System for Generation Expansion Policy Making in Iranian Deregulated Electricity Market

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ebrahimi Takalloo, Maziar (Author) ; Kermanshah, Ali (Supervisor) ; Bahramgiri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Iranian Power industry has undergone fundamental changes since deregulation started in 2003. Currently, bulk trade of electricity in the industry is mainly conducted through a day ahead wholesale market, representing over 98 percent of the exchange of electricity within the grid. Although the current market regime is under operation for over 4 years, several political, cultural and operational obstacles have hindered effective evolution of the restructuring process. Low political support from privatization of the industry assets backed by lack of confidence and trust in market economies in general, and low economic incentive of the market players has slowed down formation of an effective... 

    Make Policy for Optimizing Iran Gas Export

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Alvandi, Mehdi (Author) ; Maleki, Abbas (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This project examines four alternatives such as pipelines, oil injection wells, LNG & GTL in the purpose of Iran gas utilization. In this Project four strategies using cost/benefit analysis are examined. For this purpose, at first the cost of inlet feed gas per Mmbtu are calculated. Then regarding various scenarios of average world gas prices for the following thirty years, the cost & benefit of any way will be counted. Then with the use of energy security, the project will make energy policy. For this purpose, Shannon indicator will be used as one of the most reliable indicators. Due to the of use this indicator, the popular project will be chosen accordingly as a certain amount of gas the... 

    Neurocomputational Modeling of the Dual-Process Theory of Decision Making and Its Implication for Public Policy Making

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Keramati, Mohammad Mahdi (Author) ; Ghaninejad, Moussa (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Supported by a rich literature in psychology and neuroscience, the dual-process theory of decision making assumes that individuals’ decisions are made through arbitration between habitual and goal-directed processes within their minds. Whereas the goal-directed system makes decisions after deliberating all positive and negative consequences of each feasible choice, the habitual system make choices based on the habits formed in previous experiences. Although the decisions of the goal-directed system are always more optimal that those of the habitual system, but due to that fact that the goal-directed system is slow, effortful and time-consuming, it is sometimes more efficient to make... 

    Optimized Utilization of Electric Vehicles based on Cost Analysis- the point of view of Energy Policy

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mirahmadi, Fereshteh (Author) ; Fotuhi Firouzabad, Mahmud (Supervisor) ; Rajabi Qahnuyeh, Abbas ($item.subfieldsMap.e)
    Abstract
    This thesis represents a comprehensive view of electric vehicles from the macroeconomic policy in the energy sector perspective. In fact, in this thesis all the efficient factors in the presence of electric vehicles in the transport sector have been completely proceed. Environmental, economic, social and political factors, power grids and infrastructure are considered as the impressive factors. In order to check all factors comprehensively, Systems thinking based on dynamic system method is used. The causal relationships between all the variables which are involved in the presence of electric vehicles and related models to this thesis are simulated in VENSIM software. To investigate this... 

    Evaluating the Consequences of Salamat Universal Insurance on Healthcare Utilization and Infant Mortality

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Habibi, Mahyar (Author) ; Fatemi, Farshad (Supervisor) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In 2014, Iranian government initiated “Salamat” universal insurance program, aiming to provide free health insurance coverage for the uninsured population. Consequently, more than 10 million individuals enrolled in the program, and insurance coverage rose 15 percentage points among the urban population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the program’s consequences on healthcare utilization and mortality of various age-groups. To this end, we have estimated data on healthcare utilization from the results of “Households Expenditures and Income Survey” for years 2011-2017, and also used the data on the frequency of mortality of each age-group taken from the National Organization for Civil... 

    Analysis of Conflicting Assumptions in the Policy Process of Legislation Process of Knowledge-Based Act Using aFraming Framework

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hassani, Morteza (Author) ; Souzanchi Kashani, Ebrahim (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to find the conflicting assumptions of the main actors in the legislation process of Knowledge-based Act. Collecting and classifying all documents related to this policy process, and based on interviews with main actors involved in this process (with different objectives) and using thematic analysis, we first attempt to classify the main actors involved in the process. Second, we analyze the conflicting paradigms which have led to political conflicts in the process. This analysis helps to improve the policy process of similar acts in future  

    The Application of Deep Learning in House Price Prediction

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Anisi, Atefeh (Author) ; Rafiee, Majid (Supervisor) ; Shavandi, Hassan (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Today, estimating housing prices is very important in different societies. The reason for this growing importance can be considered the role of housing in the economic decisions and policies of any society. This estimate is made using the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of each housing and in different ways. In the past, housing prices were estimated using traditional models, but in the present century, due to easier and more access to the Internet and the development of organizations and businesses in this context, which produces a huge amount of data, the use of traditional models for this purpose is not possible. Therefore, today the use of other methods such as machine... 

    Investigating the Process of Launching and Expanding the Virtual Platform of Public Education in Iran In Response to Educational Crisis Caused by the Outbreak of Covid-19 Virus Based on the Kingdon's Multiple Streams Theory

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sharafi, Niloofar (Author) ; Maleki, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The research is performed to study the process of policy making and policy implementation of initiating student education network (Shaad) as as the first official platform of virtual education in Iran. We want to compare this process with “Kingdon’s multiple stream model”; because shaad initiated shortly after the closure of school’s caused by the outbreak of Covid-19 virus, while in recent years there have been several failed attempts to launch formal e-learning plans. Data were gathered trough semi-structured interviews of experts with shaad founders (11 people), reviewing some of the related documents and news, and unstructured observation by researcher. The findings were coded using... 

    Massive Online Open Courses and Higher Education Policy in Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Amini Abarghouie, Mohammd Ali (Author) ; Miremadi, Iman (Supervisor) ; Honarvar, Ruhollah (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The digital age and its interlace with the pandemic has led to rapid changes in various institutions, including higher education. One of the factors that changes higher education is the expansion of E-learning and Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs). Although about 15 years have passed since its creation, the pandemic has expanded the E-learning infrastructure and given it more attention, so that now everyone Confesses the possibility of distance education. On the other hand, although the development of MOOCs platforms and their considerable acceptance has attracted the attention of higher education professors and future researchers in this field, it is not properly considered by the... 

    Analyzing Mechanisms Which Create Instability in Attention to Care vs. Health in National Health System and Their Effects

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Daneshvaran, Arman (Author) ; Mashayekhi, Alinaghi (Supervisor) ; Malaek, Mohammad Bagher (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Each National Health System has to choose a combination of health and treatment programs, as the health policy to keep people healthy. As a result of shared resources, the more concentration on treatment, make health program weaker and so thegreater rate of prevalence of diseases and the more burden on treatment programs. At this situation, the problem of lack of ability to pay for health services and products will seriously threaten the health of society. Based on statistics of health status, Iran is going to face this state. So here at this thesis, in order to simulate and study the behaviors of key state variables during the time, the model of national health system developed by system... 

    Energy planning and policy making; The case study of Iran

    , Article Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy ; Volume 11, Issue 8 , 2016 , Pages 682-689 ; 15567249 (ISSN) Jafari, H. H ; Vakili, A ; Eshraghi, H ; Hamidinezhad, A ; Naseri, I ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc 
    Abstract
    Due to the limited resources of fossil fuels, energy supply–demand management and planning especially in the supply-side of the energy system have increasingly become very important. This article assesses Iran’s energy system in order to find the main causes of the considerably high energy intensity in the country compared with similar economies in size and production. Accordingly, fundamental policies and strategies are proposed in order to manage the recognized bottlenecks. The conclusions suggest strongly that not only the fossil-based energy system, but also incompatible patterns of production and consumption in the reference energy system as well as the use of conventional technologies... 

    Promotion of low-carbon economy through efficiency analysis: A case study of a petrochemical plant

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Research ; Volume 15, Issue 1 , 2021 , Pages 45-55 ; 17356865 (ISSN) Keivani, E ; Abbaspour, M ; Abedi, Z ; Ahmadian, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH  2021
    Abstract
    Over the past few decades, industrial development has caused a dramatic increment in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as a leading cause of climate change. Modifying the industrial plants' environmental performance is the main pillar of improving efficiency that can reduce the waste of resources and make achieving lower-cost global emission reduction targets of the Kyoto protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) possible. Considering the essentiality of knowledge-based research in increasing the awareness of policymakers by providing better access to accurate and reliable information, an analytical survey on efficiency in oil, gas, and petrochemical industries has been conducted by... 

    Mapping inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding in low- and middle-income countries, 2000–2018

    , Article Nature Human Behaviour ; Volume 5, Issue 8 , 2021 , Pages 1027-1045 ; 23973374 (ISSN) Bhattacharjee, N. V ; Schaeffer, L.E ; Hay, S. I ; Lu, D ; Schipp, M. F ; Lazzar Atwood, A ; Donkers, K. M ; Abady, G. G ; Abd-Allah, F ; Abdelalim, A ; Abebo, Z. H ; Abejie, A. N ; Abosetugn, A. E ; Abreu, L. G ; Abrigo, M. R. M ; Abu Gharbieh, E ; Abushouk, A. I ; Adamu, A. L ; Adedeji, I. A ; Adegbosin, A. E ; Adekanmbi, V ; Adetokunboh, O. O ; Agudelo Botero, M ; Aji, B ; Akinyemi, O. O ; Alamneh, A. A ; Alanezi, F. M ; Alanzi, T. M ; Albright, J ; Alcalde Rabanal, J. E ; Alemu, B. W ; Alhassan, R. K ; Ali, B. A ; Ali, S ; Alinia, C ; Alipour, V ; Amit, A. M. L ; Amugsi, D. A ; Anbesu, E. W ; Ancuceanu, R ; Anjomshoa, M ; Ansari, F ; Antonio, C. A. T ; Anvari, D ; Arabloo, J ; Arora, A ; Artanti, K. D ; Asemahagn, M. A ; Asmare, W. N ; Atout, M. M. W ; Ausloos, M ; Awoke, N ; Quintanilla, B. P. A ; Ayanore, M. A ; Aynalem, Y. A ; Ayza, M. A ; Azene, Z. N ; Darshan, B. B ; Badiye, A. D ; Baig, A. A ; Bakkannavar, S. M ; Banach, M ; Banik, P. C ; Bärnighausen, T. W ; Basaleem, H ; Bayati, M ; Baye, B. A ; Bedi, N ; Belay, S. A ; Bhagavathula, A. S ; Bhandari, D ; Bhardwaj, N ; Bhardwaj, P ; Bhutta, Z. A ; Bijani, A ; Birhan, T. A ; Birihane, B. M ; Bitew, Z. W ; Bohlouli, S ; Bohluli, M ; Bojia, H. A ; Boloor, A ; Brady, O. J ; Bragazzi, N. L ; Brunoni, A. R ; Budhathoki, S. S ; Nagaraja, S. B ; Butt, Z. A ; Cárdenas, R ; Castaldelli-Maia, J. M ; Castro, F ; Cernigliaro, A ; Charan, J ; Chatterjee, P ; Chatterjee, S ; Chattu, V. K ; Chaturvedi, S ; Chowdhury, M. A. K ; Chu, D. T ; Collison, M. L ; Cook, A. J ; Cork, M. A ; Couto, R. A. S ; Dagnew, B ; Dai, H ; Dandona, L ; Dandona, R ; Daneshpajouhnejad, P ; Darwesh, A. M ; Darwish, A. H ; Daryani, A ; Das, J. K ; Gupta, R. D ; Dávila-Cervantes, C. A ; Davis, A. C ; Weaver, N. D ; Denova Gutiérrez, E ; Deribe, K ; Desalew, A ; Deshpande, A ; Dessie, A ; Deuba, K ; Dharmaratne, S. D ; Dhimal, M ; Dhungana, G. P ; Diaz, D ; Didarloo, A ; Dipeolu, I. O ; Doan, L. P ; Duko, B ; Duraes, A. R ; Dwyer Lindgren, L ; Earl, L ; Zaki, M. E. S ; Tantawi, M. E ; Elema, T. B ; Elhabashy, H. R ; El Jaafary, S. I ; Faris, P. S ; Faro, A ; Farzadfar, F ; Feigin, V. L ; Feleke, B. E ; Ferede, T. Y ; Fischer, F ; Foigt, N. A ; Folayan, M. O ; Franklin, R. C ; Gad, M. M ; Gaidhane, S ; Gardner, W. M ; Geberemariyam, B. S ; Gebregiorgis, B. G ; Gebremedhin, K. B ; Gebremichael, B ; Ghaffarpasand, F ; Gilani, S. A ; Ginindza, T. G ; Glagn, M ; Golechha, M ; Gonfa, K. B ; Goulart, B. N. G ; Gudi, N ; Guido, D ; Guled, R. A ; Guo, Y ; Hamidi, S ; Handiso, D. W ; Hasaballah, A. I ; Hassan, A ; Hayat, K ; Hegazy, M. I ; Heidari, B ; Henry, N. J ; Herteliu, C ; de Hidru, H. D ; Ho, H. C ; Hoang, C. L ; Holla, R ; Hon, J ; Hosseini, M ; Hosseinzadeh, M ; Househ, M ; Hsairi, M ; Hu, G ; Huda, T. M ; Hwang, B. F ; Ibitoye, S. E ; Ilesanmi, O. S ; Ilic, I. M ; Ilic, M. D ; Inbaraj, L. R ; Iqbal, U ; Irvani, S. S. N ; Islam, M. M ; Iwu, C. C. D ; Iwu, C. J ; Jain, A ; Janodia, M. D ; Javaheri, T ; John-Akinola, Y. O ; Johnson, K. B ; Joukar, F ; Jozwiak, J. J ; Kabir, A ; Kalankesh, L. R ; Kalhor, R ; Kamath, A ; Kamyari, N ; Kanchan, O. T ; Kapoor, N ; Matin, B. K ; Karimi, S. E ; Kasaye, H. K ; Kassahun, G ; Kassebaum, N. J ; Kayode, G. A ; Karyani, A. K ; Keiyoro, P. N ; Kelkay, B ; Khalid, N ; Khan, M. N ; Khatab, K ; Khater, A. M ; Khater, M. M ; Khatib, M. N ; Kim, Y. J ; Kimokoti, R. W ; Kinyoki, D. K ; Kisa, A ; Kisa, S ; Kosen, S ; Krishan, K ; Kulkarni, V ; Kumar, G. A ; Kumar, M ; Kumar, N ; Kumar, P ; Kurmi, O. P ; Kusuma, D ; Vecchia, C. L ; Lad, S. D ; Lami, F. H ; Landires, I ; Lansingh, V. C ; Lasrado, S ; Lee, P. H ; LeGrand, K. E ; Letourneau, I. D ; Lewycka, S ; Li, B ; Li, M. C ; Li, S ; Liu, X ; Lodha, R ; Lopez, J. C. F ; Louie, C ; Machado, D. B ; Maled, V ; Maleki, S ; Malta, D. C ; Mamun, A. A ; Manafi, N ; Mansournia, M. A ; Mapoma, C. C ; Marczak, L. B ; Martins-Melo, F. R ; Mehndiratta, M. M ; Mejia-Rodriguez, F ; Mekonnen, T. C ; Mendoza, W ; Menezes, R. G ; Mengesha, E. W ; Mersha, A. M ; Miller, T. R ; Mini, G. K ; Mirrakhimov, E. M ; Misra, S ; Moghadaszadeh, M ; Mohammad, D. K ; Mohammadian Hafshejani, A ; Mohammed, J. A ; Mohammed, S ; Mokdad, A. H ; Montero Zamora, P. A ; Moradi, M ; Moradzadeh, R ; Moraga, P ; Mosser, J. F ; Mousavi, S. M ; Khaneghah, A. M ; Munro, S. B ; Muriithi, M. K ; Mustafa, G ; Muthupandian, S ; Nagarajan, A. J ; Naik, G ; Naimzada, M. D ; Nangia, V ; Nascimento, B. R ; Nayak, V. C ; Ndejjo, R ; Ndwandwe, D. E ; Negoi, I ; Nguefack Tsague, G ; Ngunjiri, J. W ; Nguyen, C. T ; Nguyen, D. N ; Nguyen, H. L. T ; Nigussie, S. N ; Nigussie, T. T. N ; Nikbakhsh, R ; Nnaji, C. A ; Nunez Samudio, V ; Oancea, B ; Oghenetega, O. B ; Olagunju, A. T ; Olusanya, B. O ; Olusanya, J. O ; Omer, M. O ; Onwujekwe, O. E ; Ortega Altamirano, D. V ; Osgood-Zimmerman, A. E ; Otstavnov, N ; Otstavnov, S. S ; Owolabi, M. O ; Mahesh, P. A ; Padubidri, J. R ; Pana, A ; Pandey, A ; Pandi Perumal, S. R ; Pangaribuan, H. U ; Parsekar, S. S ; Pasupula, D. K ; Patel, U. K ; Pathak, A ; Pathak, M ; Pattanshetty, S. M ; Patton, G. C ; Paulos, K ; Pepito, V. C. F ; Pickering, B. V ; Pinheiro, M ; Piwoz, E. G ; Pokhrel, K. N ; Pourjafar, H ; Prada, S. I ; Pribadi, D. R. A ; Syed, Z. Q ; Rabiee, M ; Rabiee, N ; Rahim, F ; Rahimzadeh, S ; Rahman, A ; Rahman, M. H. U ; Rahmani, A. M ; Rai, R. K ; Ranabhat, C. L ; Rao, S. J ; Rastogi, P ; Rathi, P ; Rawaf, D. L ; Rawaf, S ; Rawassizadeh, R ; Rawat, R ; Rawat, R ; Regassa, L. D ; Rego, M. A. S ; Reiner, R. C., Jr ; Reshmi, B ; Rezapour, A ; Ribeiro, A. I ; Rickard, J ; Roever, L ; Rumisha, S. F ; Rwegerera, G. M ; Sagar, R ; Sajadi, S. M ; Salem, M. R ; Samy, A. M ; Santric-Milicevic, M. M ; Saraswathy, S. Y. I ; Sarker, A. R ; Sartorius, B ; Sathian, B ; Saxena, D ; Sbarra, A. N ; Sengupta, D ; Senthilkumaran, S ; Sha, F ; Shafaat, O ; Shaheen, A. A ; Shaikh, M. A ; Shalash, A. S ; Shannawaz, M ; Sheikh, A ; Shetty, B. S. K ; Shetty, R. S ; Shibuya, K ; Shiferaw, W. S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Nature Research  2021
    Abstract
    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)—giving infants only breast-milk for the first 6 months of life—is a component of optimal breastfeeding practices effective in preventing child morbidity and mortality. EBF practices are known to vary by population and comparable subnational estimates of prevalence and progress across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are required for planning policy and interventions. Here we present a geospatial analysis of EBF prevalence estimates from 2000 to 2018 across 94 LMICs mapped to policy-relevant administrative units (for example, districts), quantify subnational inequalities and their changes over time, and estimate probabilities of meeting the World Health...