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    Mechanistic study of the effects of dynamic fluid/fluid and fluid/rock interactions during immiscible displacement of oil in porous media by low salinity water: Direct numerical simulation

    , Article Journal of Molecular Liquids ; 2020 Alizadeh, M. R ; Fatemi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    Low salinity waterflooding (LSWF) is a process in which by lowering the ionic strength and/or manipulation of the composition of the injection water, the long term equilibrium in oil/brine/rock system is disturbed to reach a new state of equilibrium through which the oil production will be enhanced due to fluid/fluid and/or rock/fluid interactions. In spite of recent advances in the simulation of the LSWF at core scale and beyond, there are very few works that have modelled and simulated this process at the pore scale specially using direct numerical simulation (DNS). As a result the effects of wettability alteration and/or Interfacial Tension (IFT) change on the distribution of the phases... 

    Wettability alteration of calcite rock from gas- repellent to gas-wet using a fluorinated nanofluid: A surface analysis study

    , Article Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering ; Volume 83 , 2020 Azadi Tabar, M ; Shafiei, Y ; Shayesteh, M ; Dehghan Monfared, A ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    Wettability alteration analysis form gas-repellent to gas-wet with the aid of chemical agents has been subjected of numerous studies. However, fundamental understanding of the effect of surface tension of liquid on repellency strength, the change in the intermolecular forces due to the adsorption of nanoparticles onto the rock surfaces, and exposure of treated rock in brine are not well discussed in the available literature. In this study, X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were applied to characterize the treated and fresh samples. Dynamic and static contact angle measurements were then combined with six methods... 

    The stability and surface activity of environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles: the importance of hydrophobicity

    , Article Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology ; Volume 41, Issue 9 , 2020 , Pages 1299-1310 Ghaleh, V.R ; Mohammadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2020
    Abstract
    In this study, the effect of hydrophobicity of environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles on the stability and surface activity of the nanoparticles is examined. To this end, n-propyl, n-hexyl, or n-octyl chains and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) chains at various quantities were coated covalently on the surface of silica nanoparticles to regulate the hydrophobicity of the responsive nanoparticles. Various experimental tools such as stability analysis, interfacial-tension and contact-angle measurements, and emulsion formation were performed to investigate the effect of hydrophobicity. It became evident that the presence of the hydrophobic agents influences considerably... 

    Microorganisms’ effect on the wettability of carbonate oil-wet surfaces: implications for MEOR, smart water injection and reservoir souring mitigation strategies

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology ; Volume 10, Issue 4 , 2020 , Pages 1539-1550 Jahanbani Veshareh, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer  2020
    Abstract
    In upstream oil industry, microorganisms arise some opportunities and challenges. They can increase oil recovery through microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) mechanisms, or they can increase production costs and risks through reservoir souring process due to H2S gas production. MEOR is mostly known by bioproducts such as biosurfactant or processes such as bioclogging or biodegradation. On the other hand, when it comes to treatment of reservoir souring, the only objective is to inhibit reservoir souring. These perceptions are mainly because decision makers are not aware of the effect microorganisms’ cell can individually have on the wettability. In this work, we study the individual effect... 

    Direct insights into the pore-scale mechanism of low-salinity waterflooding in carbonates using a novel calcite microfluidic chip

    , Article Fuel ; Volume 260 , 15 January , 2020 Mohammadi, M ; Mahani, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Abstract
    One of the key open questions in the area of low or controlled salinity water flooding (LSWF or CSWF) is how the observed oil recovery at macro-scale (e.g. Darcy or core-scale) can the explained and what underlying microscopic mechanisms drive it. Thus far, the micromodel investigation of LSWF has been limited to sandstones, remaining challenging to apply to carbonates. In this paper we aim to i) extend the capability to fabricate a novel calcite micromodel using Iceland spar calcite crystal, ii) investigate the pore-scale mechanisms leading to oil recovery from carbonates. A target crude oil-brine-rock (COBR) system was first selected. To screen potential brines which can produce... 

    Impact of oil polarity on the mixing time at the pore scale in low salinity waterflooding

    , Article Energy and Fuels ; Volume 34, Issue 10 , 16 September , 2020 , Pages 12247-12259 Mohammadi, S ; Mahani, H ; Ayatollahi, S ; Niasar, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2020
    Abstract
    The efficiency of low salinity waterflooding, particularly during tertiary mode injection, is highly controlled by in situ mixing between the stagnant regions holding high salinity water (HSW) and the flowing regions containing low salinity water (LSW) because it impacts directly the electrokinetics of wettability alteration and the time scale of the low salinity effect. This study aims to address the effects of oil polarity and charged rock surfaces on the time scale of mixing and transport under two-phase flow conditions. A systematic series of micromodel experiments were performed. The micromodels were first saturated with high salinity formation brine and oil (both model and crude oil);... 

    Effect of SO4 −2 ion exchanges and initial water saturation on low salinity water flooding (LSWF) in the dolomite reservoir rocks

    , Article Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology ; Volume 41, Issue 6 , 2020 , Pages 841-855 Safavi, M. S ; Masihi, M ; Safekordi, A. A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sadeghnejad, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2020
    Abstract
    The low salinity water injection has become one of the most important studies in the oil industry for improving oil recovery compared to conventional seawater injection. Thus, extensive studies have been conducted in carbonate and sandstone reservoirs to investigate how the physical properties of rocks and the chemical composition of fluids influence low salinity effect, while, the carbonate reservoir rocks requires more investigation of the effect of molecular and/or ionic interactions. In this experimental work, the effectiveness of various water flooding schemes in carbonate reservoir rock samples is investigated. In this regard, the oil recovery potential of seawater (SW), reservoir... 

    Investigation of rock and fluid interactions during engineered water flooding in dolomite reservoir rocks

    , Article Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects ; 2020 Safavi, M. S ; Masihi, M ; Safekordi, A. A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sadeghnejad, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2020
    Abstract
    Engineered water (EW) flooding is one of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques in carbonate reservoirs. In this method, the wettability of reservoir rock is altered by controlling the amount of various ions in the injected brine. The thermodynamics of wettability is related to the surface interactions and stability of water film on a rock surface. It can be identified by calculating disjoining pressure isotherms. In this study, core flooding tests, contact angle and zeta potential measurements along with the disjoining pressure isotherm calculation by the DLVO theory were used to investigate the wettability alteration of dolomite rock. Four brines include reservoir formation water... 

    Theoretical and experimental study of foam stability mechanism by nanoparticles: Interfacial, bulk, and porous media behavior

    , Article Journal of Molecular Liquids ; Volume 304 , 2020 Suleymani, M ; Ghotbi, C ; Ashoori, S ; Moghadasi, J ; Kharrat, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    Foam flooding has been applied as a promising method in enhanced oil recovery to obviate the challenges of gas flooding such as fingering, channeling and overriding. However, long-term foam stability is crucial for mobility control. In this work, the effective mechanisms on foam stability in the presence of CaCO3 nanoparticles were assessed both theoretically and experimentally. The static and dynamic behaviors of cationic surfactant (HTAB) foam in the presence of CaCO3 nanoparticles with different hydrophobicity were evaluated. The CaCO3 nanoparticles were treated with a series of long-chain fatty acids to generate a range of wettability. Afterward, the underlying mechanisms were revealed... 

    Efficiency improvement of solar stills through wettability alteration of the condensation surface: An experimental study

    , Article Applied Energy ; Volume 268 , 2020 Zanganeh, P ; Soltani Goharrizi, A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Feilizadeh, M ; Dashti, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Abstract
    The condensation process is of great importance in many heat transfer devices in which a large amount of energy must be transferred. Furthermore, condensation is a crucial part of energy conversion and affects the energy efficiency of thermal desalination plants and solar stills. During the condensation process in solar stills, an essential part of the energy is transferred through the condensation surface to produce fresh water. Therefore, the condensation surface plays a significant role in the working efficiency of solar stills. The wettability of the condensation surface influences the condensation mechanism, which, in turn, affects the efficiency of solar stills. This study aims to... 

    Relative permeability measurement in carbonate rocks, the effects of conventional surfactants vs. Ionic liquid-based surfactants

    , Article Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology ; Volume 41, Issue 12 , 2020 , Pages 1797-1811 Zabihi, S ; Faraji, D ; Rahnama, Y ; Zeinolabedini Hezave, A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Bellwether Publishing, Ltd  2020
    Abstract
    In the present study, the effect of two different kinds of surfactants namely conventional (Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)) and ionic liquid (IL)-based surfactants are investigated on the tertiary oil recovery using relative permeability concept. In this way, besides the Amott wettability index measurement, unsteady state core flooding tests are performed to not only find the effect of surfactant injection on tertiary oil recovery, but also to investigate their effects on relative permeability of carbonate rocks. In addition, for more reliable conclusions regarding the possible mechanisms, interfacial tension (IFT), compatibility and emulsification tests are carried out as a... 

    The impacts of silica nanoparticles coupled with low-salinity water on wettability and interfacial tension: Experiments on a carbonate core

    , Article Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology ; Volume 41, Issue 8 , 2020 , Pages 1159-1173 Sadatshojaei, E ; Jamialahmadi, M ; Esmaeilzadeh, F ; Wood, D. A ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2020
    Abstract
    Two main reservoir mechanisms that impact oil recovery factors are wettability alteration and interfacial tension (IFT) change. In this study, these two key mechanisms are evaluated experimentally for samples from the Asmari (carbonate) oil reservoir utilizing silica nanoparticles in the presence of low-salinity water. The nanofluid, rock formation and crude oil samples were prepared meticulously to ensure meaningful experimental could be conducted over a range of low-salinity conditions. The results show that across the range of salinities studied, the absolute value of zeta potential of nanofluids decreases with increasing total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water treated with silica... 

    The effect of nanoparticles on spontaneous imbibition of brine into initially oil-wet sandstones

    , Article Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects ; Volume 41, Issue 22 , 2019 , Pages 2746-2756 ; 15567036 (ISSN) Sobhani, A ; Ghasemi Dehkordi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2019
    Abstract
    In this paper, the effect of silica nanoparticles on oil production due to the spontaneous imbibition of brine into oil-wet sandstones has been studied. The imbibed fluids were NaCl 3 wt. % solutions containing various concentrations of nanoparticles and the recovered oil for each solution was compared. The results revealed that nanoparticles yielded more oil recovery. Nanofluid was used after brine imbibition, and the oil recovery increased from 17.8% to 40% while in the case of using the same nanofluid as the first imbibed fluid the oil recovery was 53%. Also, the results indicated that the oil recovery depends on nanoparticle concentrations. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC  

    An atomistic insight into the implications of ion-tuned water injection in wetting preferences of carbonate reservoirs

    , Article Journal of Molecular Liquids ; Volume 293 , 2019 ; 01677322 (ISSN) Koleini, M.M ; Badizad, M. H ; Ghatee, M. H ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    The efficiency of water flooding methods is known to improve by applying ion-tuned water injection. Although there is a consensus that such improvement happens through reversing reservoir wettability characteristics to more water-wet state, the true impact of ions is still ambiguous among contradictory debates. The well-known molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques would shed light on such ambiguities to gain deep atomic-scale understanding of the process. Results from MD simulations show that the presence of Na+ and Cl¯ ions leads to the formation of an electrical double layer in adjacency of calcite surface while Mg2+ ions dominantly make complexes with hydrocarbons throughout the... 

    Experimental investigation of the influence of fluid-fluid interactions on oil recovery during low salinity water flooding

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Volume 182 , 2019 ; 09204105 (ISSN) Mokhtari, R ; Ayatollahi, S ; Fatemi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    This study aims to investigate the role of fluid-fluid interactions during low salinity water flooding, using crude oil from an Iranian oil reservoir. To minimize the effects of mineral heterogeneity and wettability alteration, a synthetic sintered glass core was utilized and all coreflooding experiments were performed at low temperatures without any aging process. The effect of fluid-fluid interactions were investigated in both secondary and tertiary injection modes. pH measurements as well as UV-Vis spectroscopy and interfacial tension (IFT) analysis were performed on the effluent brine samples. Results: show that fluid-fluid interactions, mainly the dissolution of crude oil polar... 

    Wettability alteration of carbonate rock by nonionic surfactants in water-based drilling fluid

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ; Volume 16, Issue 11 , 2019 , Pages 6547-6556 ; 17351472 (ISSN) Kiani, M ; Ramazani SaadatAbadi, A ; Jafari Behbahani, T ; Sharif University of Technology
    Center for Environmental and Energy Research and Studies  2019
    Abstract
    The influx of solid or liquid particles of drilling mud into the pores of rock or mud loss phenomenon and clay swelling can sometimes lead to severe productive formation damage and cause to wettability alterations of reservoir rock from hydrophilic to oleophilic. Therefore, designing an appropriate fluid that is compatible with formation fluids and could reduce reservoir damage and increase the productivity of wells is very important. The two main mechanisms of surfactants are reduction of the surface tension and wettability alteration of rock reservoir that are effective in taking the oil. Regarding the importance of the wettability in reservoir productivity, this article is aimed to study... 

    Wettability alteration of oil-wet carbonate porous media using silica nanoparticles: Electrokinetic characterization

    , Article Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research ; Volume 58, Issue 40 , 2019 , Pages 18601-18612 ; 08885885 (ISSN) Dehghan Monfared, A ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    Abstract
    Application of nanoparticles for wettability alteration offers a practical approach to resolve some surface-related problems encountered in the nowadays technological process. Examples are underground/subsurface engineering implications, including the enhanced oil recovery from the oil-wet carbonate reservoirs. However, the common wettability evaluating techniques such as contact angle and flotation cannot be representative of the dynamic phenomena occurring at the pore scale and hence are unable to give accurate information about the process. Therefore, in the present work, the electrokinetic evaluations are utilized to explore the wettability alteration of initially oil-wet carbonate rock... 

    On the size-dependent behavior of drop contact angle in wettability alteration of reservoir rocks to preferentially gas wetting using nanofluid

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Volume 178 , 2019 , Pages 1143-1154 ; 09204105 (ISSN) Azadi Tabar, M ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Dehghan Monfared, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    Wettability alteration of rock surfaces toward gas wetting have been recognized as a practical approach for maximizing the production from the gas condensate reservoirs. Most of the reported work in this area applied the so called sessile drop contact angle measurement technique to examine the change in wetting state of a surface. However, the size-dependent wetting behavior of drop which could affect the exact determination of wettability and wettability changes was not well discussed in the previous studies. Therefore, in this work, the size dependency of contact angle for four different liquid-solid-gas systems; i.e., water-calcite-air, water-treated calcite-air (nanofluid treated... 

    Impact of ionic composition on modulating wetting preference of calcite surface: Implication for chemically tuned water flooding

    , Article Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects ; Volume 568 , 2019 , Pages 470-480 ; 09277757 (ISSN) Saeedi Dehaghani, A. H ; Badizad, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    Despite previous researches on ion-engineered waterflooding (IEWF), its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, particularly in presence of additives, like surfactants. This paper concerned with the contribution of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- and Na + into altering wettability of oil-wet carbonate minerals towards water preferred state. As a mechanistic study, an experiment workflow was conducted to probe the impact of ions' concentrations in SW, either with or without sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) which is an anionic surfactant. At first, contact angle (CA) measurement was carried out to evaluate the degree of wettability reversal upon treating the oil-aged calcite slabs with... 

    Isolation and screening of Bacillus subtilis MJ01 for MEOR application: biosurfactant characterization, production optimization and wetting effect on carbonate surfaces

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology ; Volume 9, Issue 1 , 2019 , Pages 233-245 ; 21900558 (ISSN) Jahanbani Veshareh, M ; Ganji Azad, E ; Deihimi, T ; Niazi, A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Verlag  2019
    Abstract
    The bacterial strain MJ01 was isolated from stock tank water of one of the Iranian south oil field production facilities. The 16S rRNA gene of isolate, MJ01, showed 99% similarity to Bacillus subtilis. The results revealed that biosurfactant produced by this strain was lipopeptide-like surfactin based on FTIR analysis. Critical micelle concentration of produced surfactin in distilled water was 0.06 g/l. Wettability study showed that at zero salinity surfactin can change original oil-wet state to water-wet state, but in seawater salinity it cannot modify the wettability significantly. To utilize this biosurfactant in ex situ MEOR process, economical and reservoir engineering technical...