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    Study of Phase Behavior and Economical Investigation on Transportation Of LNG and LPG Mixture

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mashhadi Ebrahim, Amir (Author) ; Badakhshan, Amir (Supervisor) ; Taghikhani, Vahid (Supervisor) ; Ghotbi, Siroos (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Many technologies should be applied for transportation or consumption of natural gas. There are many different ways for transporting natural gas from origin of production to the location of consumption which the simplest way is transportation via pipelines but for transportation of natural gas for long distances, we can not use this method in this way we should apply other technologies such as converting the natural gas to the liquid state. For using this method, first we should liquefy the natural gas up to -162 degree of centigrade at the atmospheric pressure and then transport it with large cargo ships. By using this method, the transportation costs are decreased in compared with the... 

    Physical Modeling of Effect of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading on Single Piles

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Torabi, Hooman (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Pile foundations suffered severe damages during the past earthquakes in all around the world. These damages were more severe in laterally spreading grounds and they mostly have been observed in gently sloping grounds and coastal areas. In these cases, Pile foundations not only are subjected to structures inertial loads and kinematic loads of liquefied soil but also lateral spreading intensifies damages. Thus, in the recent decade, several researches have been conducted to investigate the behavior of pile foundations in liquefiable and laterally spreading grounds, however, some uncertainties still remain in modeling of soil-pile interaction. In this study, the effects of liquefaction- induced... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Boushehrian, Ahmad (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Loads from laterally spreading ground have been a major cause of damages to pile foundations in past earthquakes. Analysis of case histories have shown that damages are particularly intense when a nonliquefiable surface crust layer spreads laterally over underling liquefied layers. In this research the effect of lateral spreading due to liquefaction on single piles embede in a gently sloping ground has been investigated. Finite element method using OpenSees is used to model the pile and embedded soil. The soil profile for all models consisted of a nonliquefiable crust layer overlying loose sand with Dr = 30-35% overlying dense sand with Dr = 70-80%. The effect of geometric properties such as... 

    Dynamic Analysis of Pile Foundations Embedded in Liquefiable Soils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahmani, Amin (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The behavior of pile foundations under earthquake loading is an important issue that affects the performance of structures. Design procedures have been developed for evaluating pile behavior under earthquake loading; however, the application of these procedures to cases involving liquefiable ground is uncertain. The performance of piles in liquefied soil layers is much more complex than that of non-liquefying soil layers because not only the superstructure and the surrounding soil exert different dynamic loads on pile, but also the stiffness and shear strength of surrounding soil diminishes over time due to both non-linear behavior of soil and pore water pressure generation. In this... 

    Assessment of Effectivness of Compaction Improvement for Liquefaction Mitigation of Saturated Sand Deposits Based on Performance Levels of Shallow Foundations

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Shahir, Hadi (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor) ; Ghannad, Mohammad Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Settlement and tilt of structures due to liquefaction of subsoil layers is a major cause of damage during earthquake. One of the main approaches to reduce terrible effects of liquefaction on shallow foundations is ground improvement. Among the variety of ground improvement methods, the densification-based methods have been more paid attention for liquefaction mitigation. For liquefaction hazard mitigation using densification methods, three basic values should be determined i.e. depth, lateral extent, and degree of improvement (percent increase in Dr). In the current design practice, the need for ground improvement is usually decided based on the semi-empirical methods for assessment of... 

    Effects of Static Shear Stress on Liquefaction Strength of Babolsar Sand Investigated under Cyclic Simple Shear and Static Triaxial Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohammadi, Morteza (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Soil liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soil loses much of its strength or stiffness for a generally short time but nevertheless long enough for liquefaction to be the cause of many losses. Thus, many researchers have worked on the factors which affect this phenomenon. Effects of initial static shear stress on liquefaction strength of loose and medium dense Babolsar sand specimens were investigated in this study. Babolsar sand is fine to medium uniform sand classified as SP in USCS. Tests were performed with cyclic simple shear and static triaxial devices. All tests were performed under consolidated undrained conditions. Cyclic simple shear tests were performed under constant vertical... 

    Numerical Simulation of Ground Displacement Induced by Lateral Spreading Phenomenon

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghasemifare, Omid (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The lateral movement of a liquefiable layer on gently slopes is the most visible and devastating type of liquefaction-induced ground failure. Occurrence of liquefaction in sloping ground causes large deformations on ground surface, which may lead to several meters in some cases. Recent earthquakes have shown that this phenomenon causes severe damages to coastal structures, piers of bridges and life-lines, by exerting large lateral forces. In this research, a fully coupled two-dimensional dynamic analysis has been used to simulate the lateral spreading phenomenon and to evaluate the magnitude of deformations occurred in liquefiable soils. The critical state bounding surface elastic-plastic... 

    Dynamic Analysis and Liquefaction Evaluation of Earth Dams, Mahabad Dam case Study

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Fallah Moshfeghi, Sogol (Author) ; Jafarzadeh, Fardin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction due to the earthquake loading is one of the most important threats in the earth structure. Analysis of liquefaction of structures such as dam/foundation systems utilizing numerical methods such as finite difference and finite element, can considerably determine the real response of the structures during strong ground motions. Mahabad rockfill dam, located in upper vicinity of Mahabad city, in North-West of Iran, completed and impounded in 1970. This embankment dam was designed as a zoned dam with a slightly inclined impervious clay core and 47.5 m in height. Studying such structures, which have been designed with simple methods in olden times, can recognize the potential risks... 

    Physical Modeling of Group Pile Response to Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading by Shaking Table Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Asefzadeh, Arian (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In recent earthquakes piles have been severely damaged due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. Liquefaction causes lateral spreading in gently sloped saturated soft granular soils, leading to significant damage in structures and deep foundations. Although in recent years many studies have focused on different aspects of this phenomenon, the complex nature of the dynamic interaction between piles and liquefied soil is not yet fully understood. Thus more studies in this regard is inevitable. The present research focuses on the discussion and analysis of two large scale shaking table tests of 2x2 and 3x3 group piles. A three layer soil profile was used for the model, consisting of one... 

    Evaluation of the Steady State and Liquefaction Potential of Gravelly Soils By Static Triaxial Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Payan, Meghdad (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Gravelly soils are among the ones that can be found all over the world and have been investigated by many researchers in recent years. Although many investigations have been performed to clarify the behaviour of these soils, but still there are a lot of shortge of information about the steady state and liquefaction potential of them. In this research, to verify the behaviour of gravelly soils, static triaxial apparatus has been used. The tests performed in this research are devided into 2 groups: Consolidated Undrained tests (CU) and Consolidated Drainedtests(CD). In group 1 tests, all 4 parameters involving gradation, relative density, isotropic pressure and anisotropy of consolidation... 

    Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Pile Foundations in Non-homogeneous Liquefiable Soils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghaffaripour, Omid (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The behavior of pile foundations during earthquakes is one of the most important factors that affect the performance of structures. Therefore, a large number of studies have been performed on the behavior of pile foundations under dynamic loading. A lot of procedures for the analysis and design of piles under earthquake loading have been developed, especially after the earthquakes which took place in 1964 in Niigata and Alaska. They introduced two major mechanisms for the failure of pile foundations in liquefiable grounds: Bending mechanism and buckling mechanism.In this research the focus is the evaluation of pile failure under buckling mechanism. A fully coupled three-dimensional dynamic... 

    Evaluate of Undrained Behavior of Uncompacted Gravely Soil With Triaxial Apparatus Under Anisotropic Condition

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bozorgi, Arash (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The study of the behavior of gravelly soil in undrained condition has been a major topic for researchers for decades. Liquefaction in gravelly soils in recent earthquake has exposed the importance and necessity of investigation on undrained the behavior of gravely soils in earthquakes. In this research, undrained behavior of gravely soils and the effects of initial static shear stress on their behavior have been investigated. In this experimental research a gravelly soil (GP) performed and a triaxial apparatus is used. All tests are performed under consolidated undraiend condition and the specimens are prepared by wet tamping method. The diameter of the specimen was 10 cm and the height was... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Seyfi, Sahand (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral spreading is a common mode of earthquake-induced failure that usually occurs as a result of liquefaction in gently sloped sandy layers. Numerical simulation of this phenomenon requires fully coupled analysis of displacement of solid sand particles and pore water pressure under seismic loading. Predicting occurrence of initial liquefaction and sub-sequent ground movement requires employing an efficient and robust constitutive model that can predict the undrained behavior of saturated sand under different conditions. In this study, a fully coupled finite element code “PISA” utilizing a critical state two-surface plasticity constitutive model, proposed by Manzari and Dafalias (1997),... 

    Liquefaction Effects on (a) Individual and Group of Capless Piles and (b) Group of three Piles under Real and Artificial Earthquakes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sabouri, Marjan (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the areas where the soil beneath the foundation is made of loose to semi-consolidated sand or noncohesive silts, Buildings and bridges are usually built on the pile foundations. One important issue that must be considered in the design of piles in saturated sandy soils, is liquefaction potential of saturated sandy soil under earthquake loads. During the earthquake, saturated sandy soil faces the sudden loss of shear strength in other word it liquifies . Liquefied Soil acts like a viscous fluid. This behaviour considerably increases the soil deformation and consequently the widespread disruption of soil layers, causes large deformation and applies great amount of forces on the piles... 

    Effects of Liquefaction on 2×2 and 3×3 Stiff and Flexible Pile Groups

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Goudarzi, Anahita (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction has a profound effect on buildings, bridges, buried pipes and other engineering structures. This phenomenon can lead to the sliding of huge earth masses, submersion and bending of substantial structures, uplift of buried light structures and collapse of retaining walls. In recorded earthquakes, liquefaction has caused major damage to structures and deep foundations, proving that pile foundations are not designed to withstand at liquefaction condition. Considerable damages in pile foundations due to liquefaction in destructive earthquakes has called for extensive study and research concerning the behavior and response of piles under the influence of liquefaction, resulting in... 

    Effect of Lateral Spreading Due to Liquefaction on Piles, Numerical Simulation with OpenSees

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghasemi Fard, Ali (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral spreading due to liquefaction and resulting destruction of buildings is important in Iran because of high seismicity and important infrastructure near south and north coasts of Iran. Lateral spreading is vast lateral movement of sloping ground or level ground ending in an opening like river which is caused by earthquake inducedliquefaction. For considering the effects of lateral spreading during design of deep foundations of structures in a susceptible area, one needs to determine the lateral loads on piles under lateral spreading. Present study investigates the behavior of a 3x3 pile group against lateral loads due to lateral spreading with numerical methods using OpenSees software.... 

    Linear and Non-linear Dynamic Analysis of Full Scale Shaking Table Laminar Shear Box to Study the Effects of Lateral Spreading Due to Liquefaction on Deep Foundations

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kazemi Taskoh, Amin (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading has imposed severe damages to many important structures supported on pile foundations during past earthquakes. As a result, evaluation of pile response to lateral spreading is an important step towards safe and resistant design of pile foundations against this destructive phenomenon. The boundary conditions for physical modeling in problems of earthquake geotechnical engineering have significant influence on the test results. In order to reduce the undesirable effects of boundaries on the model responses, the flexible containers are used. The flexible containers are those in which the shear stiffness of the walls is proportional to the soil inside. A... 

    Investigating the Influence of a Silty Layer on the Liquefaction of Saturated Sandy Soils through Numerical Methods

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moghaddam Ranjbaran, Babak (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    One of the main geotechnical phenomena that causes severe damage during earthquake is liquefaction. This incident occurs due to the undrained behavior of loose sandy soils. In this occurrence, the interaction between the solid and liquid phases in a cyclic motion leads to an increase in pore water pressure and a decrease in interactive forces (effective forces) between grains in the solid grains. Therefore, shear strength decreases. Different aspects of the aforementioned phenomenon is investigated, namely, field, laboratory, and numerical; nevertheless, the study is largely focused on the numerical modelling. Most studies in this field are carried out on a one-layer saturated sand. However,... 

    Design and Construction of Large-scale Laminar Shear Box for Study of the Behavior of Deep Foundations Subjected to Lateral Loads due to Lateral Spreading using 1-g Shake Table Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kamali Zarch, Mohsen (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Using appropriate box as an artificial boundary condition is one of the critical tasks in geotechnical physical modeling of the soil mass especially under cyclic loading such as earthquakes. In general there are two types of boxes which can simulate boundary conditions of scaled models as rigid or flexible conditions. Main purpose of this study is design and construction of a flexible box in a way that effects of boundary condition have been minimized during tests. Construction of this box is the first step of an investigation project which concern to evaluate the effect of lateral spreading as a result of liquefaction on deep foundations of bridges, piers, harbors by using shake table test... 

    3D Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Instability Induced by Liquefaction in Loose Sand Deposit when Earthquake Occurs Perpendicular to the Slope

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nazari Tileki, Ali (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Soil liquefaction occurring in loose saturated sand deposits during seismic loadings is one of the most destructive earthquake-induced phenomena in the field of earthquake geotechnical engineering. Catastrophic destructions due to this phenomenon that have been observed in the earthquakes such as Kobe (1995), Chi-Chi (1999), etc. has led to extensive studies in this field. In case of soil slopes prone to liquefaction hazard, detailed analysis of this phenomenon requires considering soil-related factors (e.g. shear strength, relative density, permeability, slope geometry) on the one hand, and earthquake-related characteristics (e.g. amplitude, frequency, duration) on the other. Numerical...