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    Studying the Effects of Liquefaction Induced Lateral Spreading on Piles and Evaluation of a Remedial Measure Against Pile Damaging Due to These Effects with Shake Table Tests Using Laminar Shear Box

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Rajabigol, Morteza (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor) ; Kavand, Ali (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading is one of the most challenging problems in geotechnical earthquake engineering. This phenomenon may impose severe damages on deep foundations in large earthquakes. In this study, six physical modeling are designed, built and tested to investigate the effects of lateral spreading on deep foundations and also assess one mitigation method. The experiments were conducted using 1g shake table of Sharif university of technology. In this respect, a large laminar shear box with outer dimensions of 420, 240 and 180 cm was designed and constructed. The laminar shear box consisted of 23 steel laminates with inner dimensions of 306×172 cm. Four experiments were... 

    Investigation of Effects of Successive Liquefaction Occurrence on Piles Located in Level Ground With an Inclined Base Layer with Using Stone Cloumns – a Physical 1g Shake Table and Laminar Shear Box Model

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Dehghanpour Farashah, Ali (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral spreading is defined as finite lateral displacement of mildly sloping grounds or those ending in free faces induced by liquefaction. The phenomenon of lateral spreading caused by liquefaction in coastal areas and mildly sloping grounds has caused significant damage to deep foundations of engineering structures such as bridge and buildings in severe earthquakes. Since earthquake is unavoidable, therefore, it is necessary to provide appropriate solution to reduce the effects of liquefaction induced lateral spreading. Despite conducting various laboratory and field studies by previous researchers, there is still no comprehensive approach to evaluate the effects of lateral spreading on... 

    Effect of Initial Static Shear Stress on Liquefaction Resistance of Gravelly Soils Using Medium-Size Cyclic Triaxial and Simple Shear Tests

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Nikoonejad, Khashayar (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    There are several case history records of liquefaction in gravelly layers with more broadly-graded particles than uniform sands which have been typically examined. Liquified deposits, in many cases, were subjected to initial static shear stress associated with the sloping ground condition or the adjacent shallow foundations prior to liquefaction. There are several graphs and recommendations for practitioners to consider the effects of the initial static shear stress on liquefaction resistance in design processes, developed based on the results of experiments on uniform clean sands. However, data for the effect of the initial static shear stress on the liquefaction strength of gravelly soils... 

    Effects of Lateral Spreading on Two 2×2 Pile Groups (with and Without Lumped Mass) Using Shaking Table and Laminar Shear Box

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zangeneh, Milad (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral spreading is the downstream movement of mild slopes or free fronts occurring due to soil liquefaction during a dynamic loading such as an earthquake. The magnitude of this movement can be from a few centimeters to tens of meters depending on parameters such as slope length, soil type, cyclic loading intensity, etc. Large displacements caused by this phenomenon can cause severe damage to some structures and infrastructures located in the direction of their movement. Numerous articles and reports of damage caused by the lateral spreading of soil have been presented during several earthquakes. Understanding this phenomenon and observing and testing its effective parameters can help... 

    Investigation of the Effects of Successive Liquefaction Occurrence on Piles Located in Level Ground with an Inclined Base Layer-A Physical 1g Shake Table and Laminar Shear Box Model

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moradi, Mohammad (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The phenomenon of soil liquefaction has caused significant damage to deep foundations of engineering structures such as bridges and buildings in past earthquakes. In recent years, many researchers have studied the effects of soil liquefaction on the pile response, but there are still many unknowns that require further research and study. The present study is part of a comprehensive research that involves several Ph.D. and master students at Sharif University of Technology (SUT). In this study, the effects of soil liquefaction on two pile 2×2 groups (one with a lumped mass and another without) in a level ground with a sloping bed were investigated. A surface non-liquefied layer was also... 

    Probabilistic Evaluation of Seismic Soil Liquefaction in Sands Using Cone Penetration Test (CPT)Data

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Razavi Nasab, Mohammad (Author) ; Ahmadi, Mohammad Mehdi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    More than half a century has passed since the start of research on seismic liquefaction phenomenon in cohesionless soils, and various researchers has proposed different correlations for liquefaction prediction based on in situ tests. However, there still exists a great uncertainty in liquefaction prediction correlations, and liquefaction still occurs in different parts of the world. Hence, the main objective of this research is to reduce uncertainty in seismic liquefaction initiation correlations. While the technical literature indicates that soil resistance can alter due to liquefaction and shaking events and soil resistance after the liquefaction is not necessarily indicative of it prior... 

    Assessing Liquefaction Potential Based on Cone Penetration Test Results

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pezeshki Najafabadi, Ali (Author) ; Ahmadi, Mohammad Mehdi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This study aimed to model the cone penetration test using FLAC 2D software in order to investigate the silty soils that can be found in tailing dams. Additionally, the model of the direct simple shear test was built in the software to estimate the variation of liquefaction potential in these soils with in-situ conditions. It should be noted that the constitutive law used in this study was the NORSAND model which meets the requirements of modeling in both tests. After validating the models, several important parameters are considered as variables to examine their effects on the results of both experiments. Regarding the validation of the models, the constructed numerical models of the cone... 

    Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Behavior of Piles and Pile Groups Due to Liquefaction- Induced Lateral Spreading

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pakzad, Amin (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The phenomenon of lateral spreading occurs as a consequence of earthquakes induced liquefaction in grounds with mild slopes or ending to an opening. This phenomenon has caused many damages to deep foundations and associated structures. Therefore, it is necessary to study and estimate the forces which may be induced by lateral spreading to these structures. Due to the complex mechanism of the effect of lateral spreading on the piles, various tests have been carried out in the form of shaking table as well as centrifuge tests. According to the results of these tests, the forces applied to the piles are significant and can cause crucial damages to deep foundations. On the other hand, because... 

    An Investigation On The Effects Of Liquefaction Induced Lateral Spreading on a 3×3 Pile Group Using Shake Table Test and Laminar Shear Box and Consideration of Boundary Conditions on Physical Model Results

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Salaripour, Saman (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral spreading is defined as finite lateral displacement of mildly sloping grounds or those ending in free faces induced by liquefaction. Severe damages of pile groups due to lateral spreading in past earthquakes has been reported. Since earthquake is unavoidable, it is necessary to study the response of piles, especially pile groups, to liquefaction induced lateral spreading. Until now, a number of methods have been developed by researchers for design of deep foundations against lateral spreading, but reported failure of piles in last earthquakes indicates that these methods are associated with high uncertainties. This is due to the lack of laboratory and experimental data to evaluate... 

    Numerical Modeling of liquefaction-induced Settlement of Free Field and Comparison of its Results with Empirical Models

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sadeghi, Habibollah (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    A numerical framework is proposed to estimate the liquefaction-induced settlement of the fully saturated sandy layers in the free fields due to earthquake excitation and the results of the proposed method are compared with those of the empirical or probabilistic methods suggested by the previous researchers. Liquefaction is a sudden transformation of saturated sandy soil into a viscous fluid which is caused by the increase in the pore pressure and decrease in the effective stress and results in the reduction of the shear strength of the soil. One of the most important consequences of liquefaction is the liquefaction induced settlement which has caused severe damages in many places in the... 

    Parametric Study and Numerical Simulation of Spiral Wound Heat Exchanger Performance at Cryogenic Temperatures

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hosseinian Khorasgani, Mohsen (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Cryogenic is the study of physical phenomena at temperatures below 123 Kelvin. One of the applications of cryogenic science is the liquefaction of gases. In the liquefaction cycles of gases, such as helium liquefaction, fluidization occurs in the pressure reducing valve but temperature of the gas should be greatly reduced before it enters the pressure reducing valve. For this purpose, high-performance heat exchangers should be used. Spiral Wound is one of the heat exchangers that has ability to achieve over 90% efficiency due to its structure. Researchs in the field of design and simulation of spiral heat exchangers are limited and are done with a lot of simple assumptions such as constant... 

    3D Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Instability Induced by Liquefaction in Loose Sand Deposit when Earthquake Occurs Perpendicular to the Slope

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nazari Tileki, Ali (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Soil liquefaction occurring in loose saturated sand deposits during seismic loadings is one of the most destructive earthquake-induced phenomena in the field of earthquake geotechnical engineering. Catastrophic destructions due to this phenomenon that have been observed in the earthquakes such as Kobe (1995), Chi-Chi (1999), etc. has led to extensive studies in this field. In case of soil slopes prone to liquefaction hazard, detailed analysis of this phenomenon requires considering soil-related factors (e.g. shear strength, relative density, permeability, slope geometry) on the one hand, and earthquake-related characteristics (e.g. amplitude, frequency, duration) on the other. Numerical... 

    Design and Simulation of Cryogenic Spiral Heat-exchanger for Gas Liquefaction Plant

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rajabi, Vahid (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Heat exchangers are one of the most important components used in liquefaction cycles and overall efficiency of the cycle mainly depends on the heat exchangers effectiveness. It has been shown that the effectiveness of these equipments should be high enough to be able to liquefy a gas. Spiral heat exchangers are used frequently in cryogenic industry and specially in Helium liquefaction industry due to their specific characteristics, however according to literature review it turns out that little study is done in the field of simulation and geometrical parameter investigation of these kind of heat exchangers, so in this study the design and simulation of these cryogenics heat exchangers are... 

    An Investigation on the Effects of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading on Deep Foundations Using Finite Difference Method

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Afzal Soltani, Sina (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction is an important phenomenon in geotechnical engineering which can cause severe damages to structures. Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading is defined as the lateral displacement in mild slopes or level grounds ending in free faces (such as quay walls) triggered by liquefaction in subsurface soil layers. During recent years, extensive studies have been conducted around the world documenting liquefaction induced lateral spreading and its effects on deep foundations. In the present study, a series of shaking table experiments which were previously conducted at Sharif University of Technology are numerically simulated using the three dimensional finite difference based program,... 

    Study of Effective Parameters on Helium Liquefaction Cycle using Exergy Analysis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Eslami, Mahdi (Author) ; Afshin, Hosein (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction of gases is one of the applications of cryogenic science. Among the gases, Helium has the lowest boiling point, which at a pressure of 1atm is approximately 4.2K. Liquid helium can be used to cool superconductors in transportation equipment, military radars, and medical imaging equipment. For helium liquefaction, various cycles are used; these cycles have different parameters in their structure such as of input mass fraction to expanders, heat exchanger effectiveness, expander arrangement and ... which their analysis for improving the performance of the cycle is important. In this research, the aim is to study 2, 3 and 4 expander cycle with various parameters and structure. For... 

    Numerical Simulation of Effect of Lateral Spreading Due to Liquefaction on Piles and Estimate Soil Lateral Displacement Pattern by Image Processing

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sayaf, Hiva (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In recent earthquakes piles have been severely damaged due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. Liquefaction causes lateral spreading in gently sloped saturated soft granular soils, leading to significant damage in structures and deep foundations. Although in recent years many studies have focused on different aspects of this phenomenon, the complex nature of the dynamic interaction between piles and liquefied soil is not yet fully understood. This potential damages are of high degree of importance in southern and northern coastal areas of Iran where several ports and critical facilities are located. The present study focuses on the behavior of a 2x2 pile group against lateral loads... 

    Linear and Non-linear Dynamic Analysis of Full Scale Shaking Table Laminar Shear Box to Study the Effects of Lateral Spreading Due to Liquefaction on Deep Foundations

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kazemi Taskoh, Amin (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading has imposed severe damages to many important structures supported on pile foundations during past earthquakes. As a result, evaluation of pile response to lateral spreading is an important step towards safe and resistant design of pile foundations against this destructive phenomenon. The boundary conditions for physical modeling in problems of earthquake geotechnical engineering have significant influence on the test results. In order to reduce the undesirable effects of boundaries on the model responses, the flexible containers are used. The flexible containers are those in which the shear stiffness of the walls is proportional to the soil inside. A... 

    Investigating the Influence of a Silty Layer on the Liquefaction of Saturated Sandy Soils through Numerical Methods

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moghaddam Ranjbaran, Babak (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    One of the main geotechnical phenomena that causes severe damage during earthquake is liquefaction. This incident occurs due to the undrained behavior of loose sandy soils. In this occurrence, the interaction between the solid and liquid phases in a cyclic motion leads to an increase in pore water pressure and a decrease in interactive forces (effective forces) between grains in the solid grains. Therefore, shear strength decreases. Different aspects of the aforementioned phenomenon is investigated, namely, field, laboratory, and numerical; nevertheless, the study is largely focused on the numerical modelling. Most studies in this field are carried out on a one-layer saturated sand. However,... 

    Design and Construction of Large-scale Laminar Shear Box for Study of the Behavior of Deep Foundations Subjected to Lateral Loads due to Lateral Spreading using 1-g Shake Table Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kamali Zarch, Mohsen (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Using appropriate box as an artificial boundary condition is one of the critical tasks in geotechnical physical modeling of the soil mass especially under cyclic loading such as earthquakes. In general there are two types of boxes which can simulate boundary conditions of scaled models as rigid or flexible conditions. Main purpose of this study is design and construction of a flexible box in a way that effects of boundary condition have been minimized during tests. Construction of this box is the first step of an investigation project which concern to evaluate the effect of lateral spreading as a result of liquefaction on deep foundations of bridges, piers, harbors by using shake table test... 

    Effect of Lateral Spreading Due to Liquefaction on Piles, Numerical Simulation with OpenSees

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghasemi Fard, Ali (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Lateral spreading due to liquefaction and resulting destruction of buildings is important in Iran because of high seismicity and important infrastructure near south and north coasts of Iran. Lateral spreading is vast lateral movement of sloping ground or level ground ending in an opening like river which is caused by earthquake inducedliquefaction. For considering the effects of lateral spreading during design of deep foundations of structures in a susceptible area, one needs to determine the lateral loads on piles under lateral spreading. Present study investigates the behavior of a 3x3 pile group against lateral loads due to lateral spreading with numerical methods using OpenSees software....