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    Development of اot exhaust emission factors for iranian-made euro-2 certified light-duty vehicles

    , Article Environmental Science and Technology ; Volume 50, Issue 1 , 2016 , Pages 279-284 ; 0013936X (ISSN) Banitalebi, E ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2016
    Emission factors (EFs) are fundamental, necessary data for air pollution research and scenario implementation. With the vision of generating national EFs of the Iranian transportation system, a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to develop the basic EFs for a statistically significant sample of Iranian gasoline-fueled privately owned light duty vehicles (LDVs) operated in Tehran. A smaller sample size of the same fleet was examined by chassis dynamometer (CD) bag emission measurement tests to quantify the systematic differences between the PEMS and CD methods. The selected fleet was tested over four different routes of uphill highways, flat highways, uphill urban streets,... 

    An assessment of gasoline motorcycle emissions performance and understanding their contribution to Tehran air pollution

    , Article Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment ; Volume 47 , 2016 , Pages 1-12 ; 13619209 (ISSN) Hassani, A ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd 
    Motorcycles are the third most common means of transportation in the megacity of Tehran. Hence, measurements of emission factors are essential for Tehran motorcycle fleets. In this study, 60 carburetor motorcycles of various mileages and engine displacement volumes were tested in a chassis dynamometer laboratory according to cold start Euro-3 emissions certification test procedures. For almost all of the tested samples, the average carbon monoxide (CO) emission factors were about seven times higher than the limits for Euro-3 certification. No motorcycle fell within the Euro-3 certification limit on CO emissions. 125 cc engine displacement volume motorcycles, which are dominant in Tehran,... 

    Modeling the formation of traditional and non-traditional secondary organic aerosols from in-use, on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles exhaust

    , Article Journal of Aerosol Science ; Volume 124 , 2018 , Pages 68-82 ; 00218502 (ISSN) Esmaeilirad, S ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    In this study, we implement a numerical model to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds emitted from in-use gasoline and diesel vehicles. The model is formulated based on the volatility basis set (VBS) approach, and it accounts for OH oxidation of unspeciated low-volatility organics, which are classified by their volatility. This model incorporates SOA formation data from smog chamber and emission measurements of vehicle exhaust in a Hybrid framework to calculate the contribution of both traditional and non-traditional SOA precursors to total SOA formation observed in photo-oxidation experiments. Emission and SOA formation... 

    Various effects of reformer gas enrichment on natural-gas, iso-octane and normal-heptane HCCI combustion using artificial inert species method

    , Article Energy Conversion and Management ; Volume 159 , March , 2018 , Pages 7-19 ; 01968904 (ISSN) Reyhanian, M ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Reformer gas (syngas) addition to main fuel is a practical solution for combustion timing control in HCCI engines. This study emphasizes the understanding of various effects of reformer gas (RG) addition, with composition of 75%vol H2 and 25%vol CO, in HCCI combustion by developing an artificial inert species method and using a detailed chemical kinetics multi-zone model. Three fuels (iso-octane, n-heptane, and natural gas) with different autoignition characteristics were used in this study. The developed multi-zone model was validated for mentioned fuels at various percentages of RG using six experimental cases of a single-cylinder CFR engine. The results showed that increasing reformer gas... 

    Black carbon and PM2.5 monitoring campaign on the roadside and residential urban background sites in the city of Tehran

    , Article Atmospheric Environment ; Volume 218 , 2019 ; 13522310 (ISSN) Taheri, A ; Aliasghari, P ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2019
    Fine particulate matter characterized as PM2.5 is the most important criteria air pollutant in the city of Tehran. Tehran is one of the most polluted cities of the Middle East based on annual mean PM2.5 concentrations. Tehran emission inventory shows the large contribution of mobile sources to the total particles. PM2.5 source apportionment studies show large fraction of black carbon (BC) in the total mass of PM2.5, especially during the cold seasons. BC is the product of incomplete combustion that is mainly derived from diesel engines and rich-burned gasoline carburetor engines on scooters and light-duty vehicles. The present study shows the results of a large experimental campaign in which... 

    Evaluation of tehran clean air action plan using emission inventory approach

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 27 , 2019 , Pages 446-456 ; 22120955 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Hassani, A ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    The city of Tehran, the capital of Iran, has been facing severe air quality problems. The air quality of Tehran has been stated as unhealthy over one-third of year during the last two decades. According to the last emission inventory of Tehran for the base year of 2013 mobile sources contribute by about 6, 46, 98, 87, and 70% of total primary SOx, NOx, CO, VOC and PM emission. A number of policies have been implemented in Tehran during the last two decades to tackle the air quality issue. Concentrated mostly on transportation sector, these policies aimed to improve fuel quality and emission performance of vehicles. Nevertheless, there is no quantified evaluation regarding the effectiveness... 

    An investigation into the effects of green space on air quality of an urban area using CFD modeling

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 34 , December , 2020 Moradpour, M ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Tehran, the capital of Iran, is one of the most polluted cities in the Middle East. However, there is no clear evidence of the effects of Tehran green spaces on reducing air pollution because there are still challenges to application of vegetation for improving air quality. The current study investigates the effects of a large volume of green space with 275 ha area in the vicinity of major highways on nearby air quality. Similar environments are often seen in many cities around the world. A computational fluid dynamics model containing aerodynamics and deposition effects of vegetation was used to simulate pollutant dispersion for eight wind directions and three different foliage densities.... 

    Impact of mobile source emission inventory adjustment on air pollution photochemical model performance

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 32 , 2020 Shahbazi, H ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Coupled weather forecasting and chemical transport models are useful tools to evaluate air pollution episodes in big cities for the purpose of forecasting and air pollution abatement measures' evaluation. However, large set of accurate data of various sources and modeling calibrations are needed for such complex modeling system to be reliable. The problem becomes more obvious when the model is operated over a domain in which there is a general lack of accurate input data such as emission inventory data. The current study investigates the possibility of model tuning for more accurate prediction of air pollutant concentrations in the city of Tehran in an air pollution episode as a case study.... 

    Investigating various effects of reformer gas enrichment on a natural gas-fueled HCCI combustion engine

    , Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Vol. 39, issue. 34 , November , 2014 , p. 19799-19809 Voshtani, S ; Reyhanian, M ; Ehteram, M ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion has the potential to work with high thermal efficiency, low fuel consumption, and extremely low NOx-PM emissions. In this study, zero-dimensional single-zone and quasi-dimensional multi-zone detailed chemical kinetics models were developed to predict and control an HCCI combustion engine fueled with a natural gas and reformer gas (RG) blend. The model was validated through experiments performed with a modified single-cylinder CFR engine. Both models were able to acceptably predict combustion initiation. The result shows that the chemical and thermodynamic effects of RG blending advance the start of combustion (SOC), whereas dilution... 

    Investigation of the effect of reformer gas on PRFs HCCI combustion based on exergy analysis

    , Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Volume 41, Issue 7 , 2016 , Pages 4278-4295 ; 03603199 (ISSN) Neshat, E ; Saray, R. K ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2016
    Lack of a direct method to control combustion timing is one of the main disadvantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Fuel blending, in which two fuels with different auto-ignition characteristics are blended, can be used to control combustion timing. Utilizing different additives is another method for HCCI combustion control. The aim of this research is investigation on the effect of reformer gas addition on the availability terms in HCCI engines fueled with primary reference fuels (PRFs). A multi zone model (MZM) coupled with a semi detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is used for calculation of different terms of exergy analysis. Heat and mass transfer between... 

    Investigating the effect of the heat transfer correlation on the predictability of a multi-zone combustion model of a hydrogen-fuelled spark ignition engine

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering ; Volume 230, Issue 1 , 2016 , Pages 70-81 ; 09544070 (ISSN) Tabatabaie, T ; Ehteram, M. A ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd 
    Research on the heat transfer in hydrogen-fuelled spark ignition engines indicates that the two most common heat transfer correlations, namely the Annand correlation and the Woschni correlation, cannot perfectly predict the heat flux during the engine cycle. This questions the accuracy of thermodynamic hydrogen engine models because the heat transfer is one of the important submodels in the development of a thermodynamic model. In addition, the Hohenberg correlation and the Shudo-Suzuki correlation have not been evaluated for hydrogen engines. In this study, a thermodynamic model of the closed cycle of a spark ignition engine is developed with a multi-zone combustion submodel to predict the... 

    Effect of reformer gas blending on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of primary reference fuels using multi zone model and semi detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism

    , Article Applied Energy ; Volume 179 , 2016 , Pages 463-478 ; 03062619 (ISSN) Neshat, E ; KhoshbakhtiSaraya Saray, R ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2016
    This study mainly aims to investigate the effect of reformer gas (RG) addition on the performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines using a multi zone model. The developed model is validated using a wide range of experimental data of a cooperative fuel research engine. Blended fuels of isooctane and n-heptane, known as primary reference fuels, with different octane numbers are used as the main engine fuel. A semi detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism containing 101 species and 594 reactions is used to simulate the combustion of blended fuels. The study is performed with different percentages of RG (0–30%). The results show that RG reduces the rate of some H abstraction... 

    A GIS based emission inventory development for Tehran

    , Article Urban Climate ; Volume 17 , 2016 , Pages 216-229 ; 22120955 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Taghvaee, S ; Hosseini, V ; Afshin, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2016
    Tehran with a population of 8.2 million urban residents, suffers from rapid urbanization in recent years resulting in severe air pollution. The aim of this study is to develop a high resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants for Tehran. Tehran pollution sources are classified into two major categories. Mobile sources, including vehicles such as passenger car, taxi, motorcycle, pickup, minibus, bus and truck, and stationary sources; consisting of industries, general service and household, energy conversion, terminals and gas stations. The emission of SOx, NOx, CO, VOCs and PM in the year of 2013 were estimated as 37.411 kt, 85.524 kt, 506.690 kt, 83.640 kt and 8.496 kt,... 

    Solid nanoparticle and gaseous emissions of a diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter and use of a high-sulphur diesel fuel and a medium-sulphur diesel fuel

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering ; Volume 231, Issue 7 , 2017 , Pages 941-951 ; 09544070 (ISSN) Doozandegan, M ; Hosseini, V ; Ehteram, M. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    High-sulphur and medium-sulphur diesel fuels are still used in several countries. Although diesel particulate filter technology for on-road diesel engines has existed since 1989, the availability of high-sulphur and medium-sulphur diesel fuels in the market causes delays in the use of catalysed filter technologies. However, the situation in places such as Tehran is considered unhealthy because of particles and black carbon, and full distribution of ultra-low-sulphur diesel is awaited eagerly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the sulphur content in fuels on the gaseous and solid exhaust emissions of a 220 kW Euro II engine equipped with a sintered metal active-passive... 

    Assessment of emission reduction scenarios with a focus on the impact of vehicle fleets on tehran air quality: case study

    , Article Transportation Research Record ; Volume 2673, Issue 5 , 2019 , Pages 197-207 ; 03611981 (ISSN) Shahbazi, H ; Hosseini, V ; Torbatian, S ; Hamedi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd  2019
    In recent years, the city of Tehran has frequently experienced severe air pollution episodes, and the increase in the use of vehicles has exacerbated this critical situation. It is unclear to what extent each vehicle category contributes to the production of pollution during a pollution event. For this purpose, a combination of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) modeling systems was used to simulate the distributions of pollutant concentrations over Tehran in a pollution episode from December 3 to 23, 2017. First, the performance of the modeling system was evaluated with respect to the simulation outputs against... 

    An experimental study on low temperature combustion in a light duty engine fueled with diesel/CNG and biodiesel/CNG

    , Article Fuel ; Volume 262 , 2020 Ghaffarzadeh, S ; Nassiri Toosi, A ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Low temperature combustion potentially can improve engine efficiency coupled with the benefits of low nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, and vice versa high unburned hydrocarbon and carbon oxide emissions through in-cylinder fuel reactions. In this survey, the experiments were carried out using a modified one-cylinder reactivity controlled compression ignition engine, dual-fueled diesel/compressed natural gas and biodiesel/CNG, to investigate the effects of direct injection strategies on the engine combustion efficiency and emission characteristics. Different ratios of biodiesel blends at different premixed ratios were applied to the dual-fuel engine. The results showed that... 

    Modeling particle deposition in the respiratory system during successive respiratory cycles

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 27, Issue 1 B , February , 2020 , Pages 215-228 Nemati, H ; Saidi, M. S ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Sharif University of Technology  2020
    This study uses a 5-lobe symmetric model to investigate total, lobar and generational particle deposition fractions in the lungs during successive cycles. It was found that for the particle size between 0.05 and 2 μm and the tidal volumes greater than 1000 ml, the effect of successive cycles helped predict more deposition fraction per cycle up to about 16% than that of a single cycle. The mentioned range of tidal volumes corresponds to light or heavy physical activities. Therefore, it can be understood that people, when physically active, exposed to particulate matter within the mentioned size range are at higher health risk as compared to both the resting state and the same state... 

    Air pollution trends in Tehran and their anthropogenic drivers

    , Article Atmospheric Pollution Research ; Volume 11, Issue 3 , 2020 , Pages 429-442 Torbatian, S ; Hoshyaripour, A ; Shahbazi, H ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    An assessment of trends in main air pollutant concentrations (including CO, SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, and Asbestos) is conducted for the years 2005–2016 for the city of Tehran, Iran. The focus has been on the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the observed trend, particularly the role of related mitigation plans implemented in the period of interest. A significant decreasing trend (about 50%) was observed in CO and SO2 concentrations during the considered time interval, which was explained by improvement plans in fuel quality and vehicle emission standards. While a substantial elevation (more than 50%) in NO2 levels was detected over the study period, variant trends were observed during... 

    Secondary organic aerosol formation from untreated exhaust of gasoline four-stroke motorcycles

    , Article Urban Climate ; 2021 , Volume 36 ; 22120955 (ISSN) Esmaeilirad, S ; Setyan, A ; Wang, J ; Hosseini, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    This study investigates the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of carburetor motorcycles exhaust. This type of two-wheeler is a popular means of transport in many Asian cities. A volatility-based numerical model was employed to predict SOA formation from a fleet of motorcycles in Tehran, capital of Iran. The fleet was a combination of four-stroke, gasoline-powered motorcycles with different engine displacement volumes. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors of all motorcycles were previously measured in a chassis dynamometer laboratory according to cold start Euro-3 emissions certification test procedures. Due to incomplete combustion and lack of control on exhaust... 

    Beneficial Role of oxygen in co and propylene oxidation over a pt-pd-based wiremesh catalyst as a retrofit emission control device for four-stroke gasoline spark-ignited motorcycles

    , Article Energy and Fuels ; Volume 35, Issue 12 , 2021 , Pages 10122-10133 ; 08870624 (ISSN) Lotfollahzade Moghaddam, A ; Hamzehlouyan, T ; Hosseini, V ; Mayer, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2021
    Over 200 million motorcycles in use worldwide account for a substantial portion of global mobile source total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. In Tehran, capital of Iran, ultrarich inefficient combustion in gasoline-fueled motorcycles results in significantly high CO and THC emissions. Motorcycle catalysts can reduce CO and C3H6(as a representative hydrocarbon) emission factors by 60-80%. In the present work, CO and propylene oxidation over a commercial Pt-Pd-based wiremesh catalyst is studied in a flow reactor setup under simulated conditions relevant to 125 cc four-stroke gasoline carburetor motorcycles. Steady-state individual and co-oxidation tests for CO and...