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    Co-precipitation Synthesis Parameters of Lithium-rich Cathode Material

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Seraji, Pardis (Author) ; Sadrnezhaad, Khatiboleslam (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Electric vehicles and electronics such as laptops and smartphones require an efficient amount of energy conversion and storage. As one of the reliable systems in this field, lithium-ion batteries have high energy density and lower emissions. Cathodic material is a bottleneck in the development of lithium-ion systems due to its high cost and limited energy capacity. In this study, lithium-rich oxide cathode was synthesized in the liquid phase using the co-precipitation synthesis method using six-aqueous nickel nitrate and four-aqueous manganese chloride precursors. The material was analyzed by structural characterization analysis as well as electrochemical characterizations. In this project,... 

    The Study of Quark-Gluon Plasma by Flow Harmonics in Heavy Ion Collisions

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mehrabpour, Hadi (Author) ; Rouhani, Shahin (Supervisor) ; Arfaei, Hesamoddin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    A new phase of matter which is known as quark-gluon plasma is created after ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Experimental data imply that hydrodynamic equations can explain this new phase of matter. On the other hand, observations show that the geometry of initial energy distribution fluctuates event-by-event, even in a given centrality class. Also, the geometry of initial state distribution reflects itself as different samples of final particle spectrum results by the hydrodynamic evolution. The particle momentum distribution can be expanded by Fourier series which its coefficients called harmonic flows. We can only study the effects of hydrodynamics on initial fireball by flow... 

    Characterization of Lithium Presence in Brine and Extraction of Lithium from Brine Resources of Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moazeni Afarani, Maryam (Author) ; Askari, Masoud (Supervisor) ; Nusheh, Mohammad (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    One of the basic resources for lithium extraction is brine which is very abundance in Iran. It is important to characterize these brines and their compositions to select a suitable method for lithium recovery from them. By investigation of the local brines and determining lithium and other alkali metals composition in them, the ion exchange process using titanium dioxide ion-sieve with nanotube morphology is suggested as highly effective method for lithium extraction from Iranian brines. Due to high advantages of hydrothermal process, TiO2 nanotubes were produced by this method and the optimum parameters of hydrothermal reactions were reported. In this way, hydrogen titanate nanotubes with... 

    Comparative Study of Different Techniques for Calculation of Cell Survival Surve in Ion Therapy

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karimi, Mehdi (Author) ; Hosseini, Abolfaz (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death around the world according to WHO. Scientists’ tried different approaches for treating this illness and from about 100 years ago one of the leading approaches to treat cancer is radiotherapy. With advancement of technology possibility of using different kinds of radiation for this purpose became available and one of the most interesting ones is high energy charged ions. But using high energy charged ions for treatment planning needs deep understanding of its nature and factors that affects the human body cells response to it. This thesis briefly reviewed the working principles of radiation therapy and then investigated two of the most used... 

    Ion Transport Through Graphene Fibers

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghanbari, Hamid Reza (Author) ; Esfandiar, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Nanostructured graphene based membranes demonstrated excellent capabilities in various applications in nanofiltration and energy conversion due to unique atomically smooth surfaces and adjustable pore size or interlayers spacing at Angstrom scales.In addition to graphitic surface and physical confinement on ions in Graphene-oxide (GO) laminates, surface charges on such 2D-slits provide an attractive aspects to have more channels walls interactions with ions. There are some reports on the osmotic power generation using physical confinements and electrostatic interactions between ions and GO membranes. However, the results indicated insufficient power densities (1 W=m2 ) can be achieved... 

    Study of Ion Transport from the Two-Dimensional Structure of MXene

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hashemifar, Fatemeh (Author) ; Esfandiar, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Reverse electrodialysis-based membranes are one of the most promising approaches to osmotic energy production. However, conventional reverse electrodialysis membranes have high strength and insufficient mass transfer, which leads to low power density and efficiency. In recent decades, the transport of ions at the nanoscale for the manufacture of reverse electrodialysis machines has attracted much attention. Compared to conventional devices, power density and energy conversion efficiency increase dramatically due to space constraints and electrostatic interactions at the nanoscale. Lamellar nanostructures, which can be easily fabricated by stacking two-dimensional nanosheets, may be a... 

    Comparative Study of Interaction Between Folic Acid (Folate) and Copper(II) Compelexes With a Diimine-Type Ligand

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Asgharzade, Samane (Author) ; Mohammadi Boghaei, Davar (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Folic acid is a pterin derivative containing a glutamyl moiety and essential for biological reactions. Pterins are a class of heterocyclic compounds with unique structures and biological functions. Tetrahydrobiopterine has been known to be essential for catalytic hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids by metal ions-containing aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Metal ions at the active site of these enzymes have been inferred to be closely associated with the pterin cofactors in the catalytic reactions.Information on pterin-metal interaction may give clues to the role of metal ions in enzymatic reactions. With these points in mind, studies have been conducted to verify the formation of ternary... 

    Adsorption Processes in Capacitive Deionization

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Vaezi, Mehran (Author) ; Taghavinia, Nima (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Today the water crisis affects billions around the world.According to existance of large amount of salty water on the earth, it seems one of the best soloution is desalination of salty water.There are methods for removing ions from water such as thermal methods, membrane methods , chemical methods and capacitive deionization.Capacitive deionization is based on the deviation of ions in the electric field.CDI system contains of two conductive porous electrodes that an elecric field is applied between them.While the brine pass through the space between the elecrodes the ions are absorbed by elecrodes. After a while the electrodes get saturated so a reverse potential is needed to regenerate the... 

    Study Quantum Phases of Superconducting Kondo Lattice Model In s and p wave symmetry of Gap Function

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moghtader, Mohammad Reza (Author) ; Kargarian, Mehdi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this thesis, first we study superconductivity and its mechanisms then classify different types of that based on symmetry of gap function. After that, we shall discuss metallic systems that have impurities in them and propose two successful model describing this phenomenon, Anderson’s model and Kondo’s model. In the next step, by introducing Kondo lattice model which is an ordered array of impurities in system, try to solve it by mean-field approximation and will be seen a phase transition in a characteristic temperature known as Kondo’s temperature. Then generalize these models to situation when background system is a superconductor and study it’s behavior and quantum phases. Although... 

    Investigation of the Influence of Nanoparticle & Nanofluidic Conduit Geometry on Ionic Transport

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bakouei, Mostafa (Author) ; Taghipoor, Mojtaba (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Resistive pulse sensing (RPS) has proved to be a viable method for detection and characterization of micro and nano particles. This method works based on ionic current variation inside nanopores. Modern fabrication methods have introduced different nanopore geometries for resistive pulse sensors therefore studing the effects of geometry on sensing performance of nanaopores is important. Numerical simulation has been used to study a wide variation of nanopore’s geometry configurations and study the physics behind this phenomena. Based on the results, numerical simulation could be used as a fast and easy tool for size determination for nanopore. To compare the sensing performance of different... 

    Study on Adsorption of Uranium from Saghand Ore Leach Liquor by Continuous Ion Exchange Systems

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Noori Khangah, Behrooz (Author) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Godocynejhad, Davood (Supervisor) ; Saberyan, Kamal (Co-Supervisor) ; Asghari, Reza (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The current study was attributed to uranium uptake by Varion-AP resin from Saghand, Iran Uranium Mine, ore leach liquor. A suitable high-efficiency system was designed for continuous ion exchange at the bench scale and the uranium uptake parameters were optimized. In this system, 1 reactors was used with a volume of 3 liters in stage with the same height difference. A leach liquor containing uranium with a concentration of between 200 and 300 mg/l was flowed from the feed storage by gravity between reactor 1 to 10 at a flow rate of 30 lit/h and Varion-AP resin was transferred in counter-current flow from stage 10 to 1 by a pneumatic pump. The output of each reactor had a screener that... 

    Study on Immobilization of the Spent Ion Exchange Resins of Tehran Research Reactor in Borosilicate Glass

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rastgoo, Pouria (Author) ; Samadfam, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Yadollahi, Ali (Supervisor) ; Sepehrian, Hamid (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Considering the operation of the current nuclear reactors and the country's policy to achieve 10,000 megawatts of nuclear power in the horizon of 1420, as well as the construction of research reactors, we will face a huge amount of radioactive waste in the coming years. Meanwhile, spent ion exchange resins constitute a large amount of low and intermediate level (LILW) solid radioactive waste produced from the nuclear industry. Therefore, appropriate precautionary measures should be taken for the immobilization and disposal of these radioactive wastes in order to ensure the sustainable development of the nuclear industry and the protection of the environment and human health. In this study,... 

    Study on Separation of Uranium from Phosphoric Acid by Column Chromatography

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Grayeli, Fatemeh (Author) ; Sohrabpour, Mostafa (Supervisor) ; Khanchi, Ali Reza (Supervisor) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this study, uranium removal from phosphoric acid with doulite resin was examined. Different uptake properties of the doulite resin were examined using batch, stirred and column methods. Langmuier, freundlich and dubinin equation was fitted the isotherm data and freundlich equation showed the best fitting. Adsorption kinetics was controlled by slow intraparticle diffusion of UO22+ ions in resin, and it obeyed a shrinking core model. Also a pseudo-second order chemical reaction fairly fitted the kinetics data  

    Experimental Study and Optimization of Nuclear Grade Boric Acid Production Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ahmadian Koudakan, Payam (Author) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Aflaki Pashaki, Fereydoon (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Boric acid (H3BO3) is a weak monobasic acid that exist as a white powder in the standard conditions. In industry, it is used in manufacturing of fiberglas filaments, precious metals soldering and production of flat panel LCD displays. In all of these applications, normal grade boric acid is used, but nuclear industry demands an ultrapure boric acid (UPA) for controlling of the reactivity and power levels in pressurized water reactors. Annual consumption of UPA in Bushehr Power Plant (BPP) is around 60 metric tons. Currently, this amount is imported from Russia, but atomic energy organization of Iran plans to displace it by the acid made inside the country. Domestic production of UPA in... 

    Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Ferrous Biooxidation in a Monolithic Bioreactor

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kahrizi, Ehsan (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The bio-oxidation of ferrous iron is a potential industrial process in the regeneration of ferric iron and the removal of H2S in combustible gases. Bio-oxidation of ferrous iron may be an alternative method of producing ferric sulfate, which is a reagent used for removal of H2S from biogas, tail gas and pulp and paper industry. For practical use of this process, this study evaluated the optimal pH and initial ferric concentration. pH control looks like a key factor as it acts both on growth rate and on solubility of materials in the system. Some process variables such as pH and amount of initial ferrous ions on oxidation by A. ferrooxidans and the effects of such process variables dilution... 

    Numerical Simulation and Modeling of Electrochemical Processes in Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hassani, Elham (Author) ; Rajani Ghahnavieh, Abbas (Supervisor) ; Torabi, Farshad (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Batteries have always been used as one of the most important sources of electricity storage and supply. Among different types of batteries, lithium-ion batteries are widely used in various fields and engineering applications due to their high-density energy/power, high discharge/charge rate, and long life. The most common of these applications are using these batteries in all-electric and hybrid vehicles, which reduce environmental problems. Due to the high cost of these types of batteries and the environmental issues of battery decomposition, researchers are seeking to discover long-lasting batteries that lithium titanate oxide batteries have the most extended lifespan among lithium-ion... 

    Chemomechanical Modeling of Silicon Electrode in Lithium-Ion Battery by Considering the Effects of Large Plastic Deformation and Strain Rate

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Bagheri, Afsar (Author) ; Naghdabadi, Reza (Supervisor) ; Argavani Hadi, Jamal (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In Li-ion batteries, large volume changes of electrodes with high capacity, such as silicon electrodes during charging and discharging processes (insertion/extraction of lithium into/from the electrode), lead to restrictions on the use of this type of electrode. Given the very high capacity of silicon, predicting and modeling the behavior of silicon electrodes during electrochemical cycles is important and is also addressed in this thesis. First, using the theory of linear elasticity, relations are proposed that couple the diffusion of particles with small elastic deformation. The effect of hydrostatic stress on diffusion and stresses is investigated in lithiation processes. Then, the... 

    Performance Modeling of Nano-Porous Monolayers in Water Desalination Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations Approach

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mehrdad, Mohammad (Author) ; Moosavi, Ali (Supervisor) ; Nejat, Hossein (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Water plays an essential role in the daily lives of humans, plants, and animals. Due to the lack of safe water on the planet, in recent years there have been many challenges in the field of water treatment, which has made water desalination technology always one of the most advanced technologies. The most advanced technology in this field is the use of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment, especially the use of Membrane processes such as reverse osmosis. Unlike conventional reverse osmosis membranes, nanoporous membranes can ensure rapid water transfer during the displacement process. The purpose of this thesis is to introduce new monolayers that have an incredible performance in... 

    Numerical Simulation of Water Filtration from Pollutant Ions Using Nanoporous Graphene Membrane

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahiminejad, Mohammad (Author) ; Moosavi, Ali (Supervisor) ; Nouri Borujerdi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Water treatment from industrial and domestic pollutants is one of the most important issues in recent decades. In the present research, simulation of water purification using single-layer graphene membrane were studied. The effects of nanopores diameter, applied pressure, concentration of contaminant ions, and functional groups on the amount of filtered water and ion rejection through the membrane were quantified. Contaminant ions including Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cl- were dissolved in water. Based on the results, by increasing the pore diameter and applied pressure, more water would pass through the membrane. Also it was concluded that pores with functional groups have better performance... 

    Analysis of Ratcheting in Elastic-plastic Behavior of Li-ion Battery Electrodes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hashemi, Mohammad Ali (Author) ; Naghdabadi, Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Among the various materials, silicon anodes have the highest lithium absorption in lithium-ion batteries. But this high lithium absorption capacity can cause 300 percent volume expansion and large stresses. Experimental observations show that charge and discharge cycles may cause plastic deformation in some parts of the electrode particle. On the other hand, there is a possibility of a ratcheting phenomenon due to changing in elastic properties of the electrode material during the charging and discharging processes. However, this phenomenon has not been reported for silicon spherical electrode particles yet.This study aims to model the elastic-plastic behavior of silicon spherical electrode...