Search for: biomechanical-phenomena
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    Is there a reliable and invariant set of muscle synergy during isometric biaxial trunk exertion in the sagittal and transverse planes by healthy subjects?

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 48, Issue 12 , Sep , 2015 , Pages 3234-3241 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Sedaghat Nejad, E ; Mousavi, S. J ; Hadizadeh, M ; Narimani, R ; Khalaf, K ; Campbell Kyureghyan, N ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    It has been suggested that the central nervous system simplifies muscle control through basic units, called synergies. In this study, we have developed a novel target-matching protocol and used non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique to extract trunk muscle synergies and corresponding torque synergies. Isometric torque data at the L5/S1 level and electromyographic patterns of twelve abdominal and back muscles from twelve healthy participants (five females) were simultaneously recorded. Each participant performed a total number of 24 isometric target-matching tasks using 12 different angular directions and 2 levels of uniaxial and biaxial exertions. Within- and between-subject... 

    Comparison of kinematics of ACL-deficient and healthy knees during passive flexion and isometric leg press

    , Article Knee ; Volume 20, Issue 6 , December , 2013 , Pages 505-510 ; 09680160 (ISSN) Esfandiarpour, F ; Shakourirad, A ; Talebian Moghaddam, S ; Olyaei, G ; Eslami, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Background: Studying the kinematics of the ACL deficient (ACLD) knees, during different physiological activities and muscle contraction patterns, can improve our understanding of the joint's altered biomechanics due to ACL deficiency as well as the efficacy and safety of the rehabilitations exercises. Methods: Twenty-five male volunteers, including 11 normal and 14 unilateral ACLD subjects, participated in this study. The kinematics of the injured knees of the ACLD subjects was compared with their intact knees and the healthy group during passive flexion and isometric leg press with the knees flexed from full extension to 45° flexion, with 15° intervals. An accurate registration algorithm... 

    A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus

    , Article Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology ; Volume 16, Issue 3 , 2017 , Pages 1077-1093 ; 16177959 (ISSN) Elyasi, N ; Karimi Taheri, K ; Narooei, K ; Karimi Taheri, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Verlag  2017
    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney–Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney–Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the... 

    Subject-specific 2D/3D image registration and kinematics-driven musculoskeletal model of the spine

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 57 , 2017 , Pages 18-26 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Eskandari, A. H ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    An essential input to the musculoskeletal (MS) trunk models that estimate muscle and spine forces is kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae. While thorax and pelvis kinematics are usually measured via skin motion capture devices (with inherent errors on the proper identification of the underlying bony landmarks and the relative skin-sensor-bone movements), those of the intervening lumbar vertebrae are commonly approximated at fixed proportions based on the thorax-pelvis kinematics. This study proposes an image-based kinematics measurement approach to drive subject-specific (musculature, geometry, mass, and center of masses) MS models. Kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and... 

    Goal equivalent manifold analysis of task performance in non-specific LBP and healthy subjects during repetitive trunk movement; effect of load, velocity, symmetry

    , Article Human Movement Science ; Volume 51 , 2017 , Pages 72-81 ; 01679457 (ISSN) Chehrehrazi, M ; Sanjari, M. A ; Mokhtarinia, H. R ; Jamshidi, A. A ; Maroufi, N ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Motor abundance allows reliability of motor performance despite its variability. The nature of this variability provides important information on the flexibility of control strategies. This feature of control may be affected by low back pain (LPB) and trunk flexion/extension conditions. Goal equivalent manifold (GEM) analysis was used to quantify the ability to exploit motor abundance during repeated trunk flexion/extension in healthy individuals and people with chronic non-specific LBP (CNSLBP). Kinematic data were collected from 22 healthy volunteers and 22 CNSLBP patients during metronomically timed, repeated trunk flexion/extension in three conditions of symmetry, velocity, and loading;... 

    Role and significance of trunk and upper extremity muscles in walker-assisted paraplegic gait: a case study

    , Article Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ; Volume 24, Issue 1 , 2018 , Pages 18-27 ; 10820744 (ISSN) Baniasad, M ; Farahmand, F ; Arazpour, M ; Zohoor, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Thomas Land Publishers Inc  2018
    Background and Purpose: Understanding the role and significance of trunk and upper extremity muscles in paraplegic gait can help in designing more effective assistive devices for these patients and also provides valuable information for improving muscle strengthening programs. Methods: In a patient with a spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk independently (rating scale of ambulatory capacity, 9) with the aid of bilateral ankle-foot orthosis and a walker, the kinematics, kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of 16 muscles from the trunk and upper and lower extremities were recorded during gait. The onset, cessation, and duration of the EMG signal were associated with the 4 phases... 

    Lower extremity kinematic analysis in male athletes with unilateral anterior cruciate reconstruction in a jump-landing task and its association with return to sport criteria

    , Article BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders ; Volume 20, Issue 1 , 2019 ; 14712474 (ISSN) Norouzi, S ; Esfandiarpour, F ; Mehdizadeh, S ; Yousefzadeh, N. K ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    BioMed Central Ltd  2019
    Background: Return to sport (RTS) criteria are widely being used to identify anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) athletes ready to return to sportive activity and reduce risk of ACL re-injury. However, studies show a high rate of ACL re-injury in athletes who passed RTS criteria. This indicates that the current RTS criteria might not be sufficient to determine return to sport time in ACLR athletes. Previous studies have reported a close association between altered lower limb kinematics and ACL re-injury. However, it is not clear how lower extremity kinematics differs between ACLR athletes who passed the RTS-criteria and who failed. This study compared lower extremity kinematics... 

    Subject-specific loads on the lumbar spine in detailed finite element models scaled geometrically and kinematic-driven by radiography images

    , Article International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering ; Volume 35, Issue 4 , 2019 ; 20407939 (ISSN) Dehghan Hamani, I ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Wiley-Blackwell  2019
    Traditional load-control musculoskeletal and finite element (FE) models of the spine fail to accurately predict in vivo intervertebral joint loads due mainly to the simplifications and assumptions when estimating redundant trunk muscle forces. An alternative powerful protocol that bypasses the calculation of muscle forces is to drive the detailed FE models by image-based in vivo displacements. Development of subject-specific models, however, both involves the risk of extensive radiation exposures while imaging in supine and upright postures and is time consuming in terms of the reconstruction of the vertebrae, discs, ligaments, and facets geometries. This study therefore aimed to introduce a... 

    Assessing the role of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle fatigue using a multi-scale continuum model

    , Article Journal of Theoretical Biology ; Volume 461 , 2019 , Pages 76-83 ; 00225193 (ISSN) Karami, M ; Calvo, B ; Zohoor, H ; Firoozbakhsh, K ; Grasa, J ; Sharif University of Technology
    Academic Press  2019
    The Calcium ion Ca2+ plays a critical role as an initiator and preserving agent of the cross-bridge cycle in the force generation of skeletal muscle. A new multi-scale chemo-mechanical model is presented in order to analyze the role of Ca2+ in muscle fatigue and to predict fatigue behavior. To this end, a cross-bridge kinematic model was incorporated in a continuum based mechanical model, considering a thermodynamic compatible framework. The contractile velocity and the generated active force were directly related to the force-bearing states that were considered for the cross-bridge cycle. In order to determine the values of the model parameters, the output results of an isometric simulation... 

    Design optimization of an above-knee prosthesis based on the kinematics of gait

    , Article 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS'08, Vancouver, BC, 20 August 2008 through 25 August 2008 ; 2008 , Pages 4274-4277 ; 9781424418152 (ISBN) Pejhan, S ; Farahmand, F ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    A dynamic model of an above-knee prosthesis during the complete gait cycle was developed. The model was based on a two-dimensional multi-body mechanical system and included a hydraulic and an elastic controller for the knee and a kinematical driver controller for the prosthetic ankle. The equations of motion were driven using Lagrange method. Simulation of the foot contact was conducted using a two-point penetration contact model. The knee elastic and hydraulic controller units, the knee extension stop, and the kinematical driver controller of the ankle were represented by a spring and a dashpot, a nonlinear spring, and a torsional spring-damper within a standard prosthetic configuration.... 

    Spinal segment ranges of motion, movement coordination, and three-dimensional kinematics during occupational activities in normal-weight and obese individuals

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 123 , 2021 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Ghasemi, M ; Arjmand, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Measurements of spinal segment ranges of motion (RoMs), movement coordination, and three-dimensional kinematics during occupational activities have implications in occupational/clinical biomechanics. Due to the large amount of adipose tissues, obese individuals may have different RoMs, lumbopelvic coordination, and kinematics than normal-weight ones. We aimed to measure/compare trunk, lumbar, and pelvis primary RoMs in all anatomical planes/directions, lumbopelvic ratios (lumbar to pelvis rotations at different trunk angles) in all anatomical planes/directions and three-dimensional spine kinematics during twelve symmetric/asymmetric statics load-handling activities in healthy normal-weight... 

    Muscular activity comparison between non-amputees and transfemoral amputees during normal transient-state walking speed

    , Article Medical Engineering and Physics ; Volume 95 , 2021 , Pages 39-44 ; 13504533 (ISSN) Mehryar, P ; Shourijeh, M. S ; Rezaeian, T ; Khandan, A. R ; Messenger, N ; O'Connor, R ; Farahmand, F ; Dehghani Sanij, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Research question: Would there be differences in muscle activation between healthy subjects’ (HS) dominant leg and transfemoral amputees’ (TFA) intact-leg/contralateral-limb (IL) during normal transient-state walking speed? Methods: The muscle activation patterns are obtained by calculating the linear envelope of the EMG signals for each group. The activation patterns/temporal changes are compared between-population using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results: Individual muscle activity showed significant differences in all muscles except vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (SEM) and tensor fascia latae (TFL) activities. Significance: The information could be used by the therapists... 

    A novel coupled musculoskeletal finite element model of the spine – Critical evaluation of trunk models in some tasks

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 119 , 2021 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Rajaee, M. A ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Spine musculoskeletal (MS) models make simplifying assumptions on the intervertebral joint degrees-of-freedom (rotational and/or translational), representation (spherical or beam-like joints), and properties (linear or nonlinear). They also generally neglect the realistic structure of the joints with disc nuclei/annuli, facets, and ligaments. We aim to develop a novel MS model where trunk muscles are incorporated into a detailed finite element (FE) model of the ligamentous T12-S1 spine thus constructing a gold standard coupled MS-FE model. Model predictions are compared under some tasks with those of our earlier spherical joints, beam joints, and hybrid (uncoupled) MS-FE models. The coupled... 

    A comprehensive approach for the validation of lumbar spine finite element models investigating post-fusion adjacent segment effects

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 121 , 2021 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Azadi, A ; Arjmand, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Spinal fusion surgery is usually followed by accelerated degenerative changes in the unfused segments above and below the treated segment(s), i.e., adjacent segment disease (ASD). While a number of risk factors for ASD have been suggested, its exact pathogenesis remains to be identified. Finite element (FE) models are indispensable tools to investigate mechanical effects of fusion surgeries on post-fusion changes in the adjacent segment kinematics and kinetics. Existing modeling studies validate only their intact FE model against in vitro data and subsequently simulate post-fusion in vivo conditions. The present study provides a novel approach for the comprehensive validation of a lumbar... 

    Relative performances of artificial neural network and regression mapping tools in evaluation of spinal loads and muscle forces during static lifting

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 46, Issue 8 , 2013 , Pages 1454-1462 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Arjmand, N ; Ekrami, O ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Plamondon, A ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Two artificial neural networks (ANNs) are constructed, trained, and tested to map inputs of a complex trunk finite element (FE) model to its outputs for spinal loads and muscle forces. Five input variables (thorax flexion angle, load magnitude, its anterior and lateral positions, load handling technique, i.e., one- or two-handed static lifting) and four model outputs (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) for spinal loads and 76 model outputs (forces in individual trunk muscles) are considered. Moreover, full quadratic regression equations mapping input-outputs of the model developed here for muscle forces and previously for spine loads are used to compare the... 

    Effect of intervertebral translational flexibilities on estimations of trunk muscle forces, kinematics, loads, and stability

    , Article Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering ; Volume 18, Issue 16 , Sep , 2015 , Pages 1760-1767 ; 10255842 (ISSN) Ghezelbash, F ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2015
    Due to the complexity of the human spinal motion segments, the intervertebral joints are often simulated in the musculoskeletal trunk models as pivots thus allowing no translational degrees of freedom (DOFs). This work aims to investigate, for the first time, the effect of such widely used assumption on trunk muscle forces, spinal loads, kinematics, and stability during a number of static activities. To address this, the shear deformable beam elements used in our nonlinear finite element (OFE) musculoskeletal model of the trunk were either substantially stiffened in translational directions (SFE model) or replaced by hinge joints interconnected through rotational springs (HFE model). Results... 

    The effects of movement speed on kinematic variability and dynamic stability of the trunk in healthy individuals and low back pain patients

    , Article Clinical Biomechanics ; Volume 30, Issue 7 , Aug , 2015 , Pages 682-688 ; 02680033 (ISSN) Asgari, M ; Sanjari, M. A ; Mokhtarinia, H. R ; Moeini Sedeh, S ; Khalaf, K ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Background: Comparison of the kinematic variability and dynamic stability of the trunk between healthy and low back pain patient groups can contribute to gaining valuable information about the movement patterns and neuromotor strategies involved in various movement tasks. Methods: Fourteen chronic low back pain patients with mild symptoms and twelve healthy male volunteers performed repeated trunk flexion-extension movements in the sagittal plane at three different speeds: 20 cycles/min, self-selected, and 40 cycles/min. Mean standard deviations, coefficient of variation and variance ratio as variability measures; maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents and maximum Floquet multipliers as... 

    Effect of body weight on spinal loads in various activities: A personalized biomechanical modeling approach

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 48, Issue 2 , 2015 , Pages 276-282 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Hajihosseinali, M ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Epidemiological studies are divided over the causative role of body weight (BW) in low back pain. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable approach to examine the effect of changes in BW on spinal loads and risk of back pain. Changes in BW have not been properly simulated by previous models as associated alterations in model inputs on the musculature and moment arm of gravity loads have been neglected. A detailed, multi-joint, scalable model of the thoracolumbar spine is used to study the effect of BW (varying at five levels, i.e., 51, 68, 85, 102, and 119kg) on the L5-S1 spinal loads during various static symmetric activities while scaling moment arms and physiological cross-sectional areas of... 

    Comparative evaluation of six quantitative lifting tools to estimate spine loads during static activities

    , Article Applied Ergonomics ; Volume 48 , 2015 , Pages 22-32 ; 00036870 (ISSN) Rajaee, M. A ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Plamondon, A ; Schmidt, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Different lifting analysis tools are commonly used to assess spinal loads and risk of injury. Distinct musculoskeletal models with various degrees of accuracy are employed in these tools affecting thus their relative accuracy in practical applications. The present study aims to compare predictions of six tools (HCBCF, LSBM, 3DSSPP, AnyBody, simple polynomial, and regression models) for the L4-L5 and L5-S1 compression and shear loads in twenty-six static activities with and without hand load. Significantly different spinal loads but relatively similar patterns for the compression (R2>0.87) were computed. Regression models and AnyBody predicted intradiscal pressures in closer agreement with... 

    Nanomechanical properties of MscL α helices: A steered molecular dynamics study

    , Article Channels ; Volume 11, Issue 3 , 2017 , Pages 209-223 ; 19336950 (ISSN) Bavi, N ; Bavi, O ; Vossoughi, M ; Naghdabadi, R ; Hill, A. P ; Martinac, B ; Jamali, Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2017
    Gating of mechanosensitive (MS) channels is driven by a hierarchical cascade of movements and deformations of transmembrane helices in response to bilayer tension. Determining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the individual transmembrane helices is therefore central to understanding the intricacies of the gating mechanism of MS channels. We used a constant-force steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to perform unidirectional pulling tests on all the helices of MscL in M. tuberculosis and E. coli homologs. Using this method, we could overcome the issues encountered with the commonly used constant-velocity SMD simulations, such as low mechanical stability of the helix during...