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    Trunk, pelvis, and knee kinematics during running in females with and without patellofemoral pain

    , Article Gait and Posture ; Volume 89 , 2021 , Pages 80-85 ; 09666362 (ISSN) Haghighat, F ; Ebrahimi, S ; Rezaie, M ; Shafiee, E ; Shokouhyan, S. M ; Motealleh, A ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Abstract
    Background: Females are two times more likely to develop patellofemoral pain (PFP) than males. Abnormal trunk and pelvis kinematics are thought to contribute to the pathomechanics of this condition. However, there is a scarcity of evidence investigating proximal segments kinematics in females with PFP. Research question: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether females with PFP demonstrate altered trunk, pelvis, and knee joint kinematics compared with healthy controls during running. Methods: Thirty-four females (17 PFP, 17 controls) underwent a 3-dimensional motion analysis during treadmill running at preferred and fixed speeds, each trial for 30 s. Variables of interest... 

    A comprehensive evaluation of spine kinematics, kinetics, and trunk muscle activities during fatigue-induced repetitive lifting

    , Article Human Factors ; Volume 64, Issue 6 , 2022 , Pages 997-1012 ; 00187208 (ISSN) Kazemi, Z ; Mazloumi, A ; Arjmand, N ; Keihani, A ; Karimi, Z ; Ghasemi, M. S ; Kordi, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Inc  2022
    Abstract
    Objective: Spine kinematics, kinetics, and trunk muscle activities were evaluated during different stages of a fatigue-induced symmetric lifting task over time. Background: Due to neuromuscular adaptations, postural behaviors of workers during lifting tasks are affected by fatigue. Comprehensive aspects of these adaptations remain to be investigated. Method: Eighteen volunteers repeatedly lifted a box until perceived exhaustion. Body center of mass (CoM), trunk and box kinematics, and feet center of pressure (CoP) were estimated by a motion capture system and force-plate. Electromyographic (EMG) signals of trunk/abdominal muscles were assessed using linear and nonlinear approaches. The L5-S1... 

    Direction-dependency of the kinematic indices in upper extremities motor assessment of stroke patients

    , Article Medical Engineering and Physics ; Volume 108 , 2022 ; 13504533 (ISSN) Hajihosseinali, M ; Behzadipour, S ; Taghizadeh, G ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Background: Kinematic indices (KIs) are frequently used as objective measures to assess the upper extremities motor performance in post stroke patients. The clinimetric analysis of these indices has been mostly limited to their averaged values over different directions of reaching movements. Recent studies indicate direction dependencies of such motor performances due to neural and/or biomechanical causes. The direction dependencies of such indices and their clinimetric parameters remains to be investigated. Methods: An apparatus was built to perform and measure planar point-to-point reaching tasks in 8 directions using a virtual reality environment. 24 stroke and 18 healthy individuals... 

    Adjacent segments biomechanics following lumbar fusion surgery: a musculoskeletal finite element model study

    , Article European Spine Journal ; Volume 31, Issue 7 , 2022 , Pages 1630-1639 ; 09406719 (ISSN) Ebrahimkhani, M ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi-Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH  2022
    Abstract
    Purpose: This study exploits a novel musculoskeletal finite element (MS-FE) spine model to evaluate the post-fusion (L4–L5) alterations in adjacent segment kinetics. Methods: Unlike the existing MS models with idealized representation of spinal joints, this model predicts stress/strain distributions in all passive tissues while organically coupled to a MS model. This generic (in terms of musculature and material properties) model uses population-based in vivo vertebral sagittal rotations, gravity loads, and an optimization algorithm to calculate muscle forces. Simulations represent individuals with an intact L4–L5, a preoperative severely degenerated L4–L5 (by reducing the disc height by ~... 

    Effects of plate contouring quality on the biomechanical performance of high tibial osteotomy fixation: A parametric finite element study

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine ; Volume 236, Issue 3 , 2022 , Pages 356-366 ; 09544119 (ISSN) Hayatbakhsh, Z ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Locking plates have threaded holes, in which threaded-head screws are affixed. Hence, they do not need to be in intimate contact with underlying bone to provide fixation. There are, however, reports that a large distance between the plate and the bone might cause clinical complications such as delayed union or nonunion, screw pull out, and screw and plate breakage. Considering the diversity in the capabilities and costs of different plate customization techniques, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the plate contouring quality on the biomechanical performance of high tibial osteotomy (HTO) fixation. A finite element model of proximal tibia was developed in Abaqus,... 

    Trunk dynamic stability assessment for individuals with and without nonspecific low back pain during repetitive movement

    , Article Human Factors ; Volume 64, Issue 2 , 2022 , Pages 291-304 ; 00187208 (ISSN) Asgari, M ; Mokhtarinia, H. R ; Sanjari, M. A ; Kahrizi, S ; Philip, G. C ; Parnianpour, M ; Khalaf, K ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Inc  2022
    Abstract
    Objective: This study aimed to employ nonlinear dynamic approaches to assess trunk dynamic stability with speed, symmetry, and load during repetitive flexion-extension (FE) movements for individuals with and without nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP). Background: Repetitive trunk FE movement is a typical work-related LBP risk factor contingent on speed, symmetry, and load. Improper settings/adjustments of these control parameters could undermine the dynamic stability of the trunk, hence leading to low back injuries. The underlying stability mechanisms and associated control impairments during such dynamic movements remain elusive. Method: Thirty-eight male volunteers (19 healthy, 19 NSLBP)... 

    Effect of geometry on the fixation strength of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bashti technique

    , Article Journal of Knee Surgery ; Volume 35, Issue 5 , 2022 , Pages 539-547 ; 15388506 (ISSN) Moeinnia, H ; Nourani, A ; Borjali, A ; Mohseni, M ; Ghias, N ; Korani, H ; Chizari, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Georg Thieme Verlag  2022
    Abstract
    The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of tendon and cannulated drill bit diameter on the strength of the bone and site hold tendon inside (BASHTI) fixation technique for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Bovine digital tendons and Sawbones blocks were used to mimic the ACL reconstruction. Mechanical strength of the specimens was measured using a cyclic loading continued by a single cycle pullout load until failure to simulate the real postsurgical loading conditions. Finally, failure modes of specimens and ultimate failure load were recorded. The maximum possible tendon surface strain (i.e., tendon compression [TC]) for tendon diameters of 6, 7, 8, and 9 mm... 

    A multi-objective approach to optimize the weight and stress of the locking plates using finite element modeling

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine ; Volume 236, Issue 2 , 2022 , Pages 188-198 ; 09544119 (ISSN) Rafiei, S ; Nourani, A ; Chizari, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    This paper aims to identify an optimum bone fracture stabilizer. For this purpose, three design variables including the ratio of the screw diameter to the plate width at three levels, the ratio of the plate thickness to the plate width at three levels, and the diameter of the bone at two levels were selected for analysis. Eighteen 3D verified finite element models were developed to examine the effects of these parameters on the weight, maximum displacement and maximum von Mises stress of the fixation structure. Considering the relations between the inputs and outputs using multivariate regression, a genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal choices. Results showed that the diameter of... 

    Is there a reliable and invariant set of muscle synergy during isometric biaxial trunk exertion in the sagittal and transverse planes by healthy subjects?

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 48, Issue 12 , Sep , 2015 , Pages 3234-3241 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Sedaghat Nejad, E ; Mousavi, S. J ; Hadizadeh, M ; Narimani, R ; Khalaf, K ; Campbell Kyureghyan, N ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    It has been suggested that the central nervous system simplifies muscle control through basic units, called synergies. In this study, we have developed a novel target-matching protocol and used non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique to extract trunk muscle synergies and corresponding torque synergies. Isometric torque data at the L5/S1 level and electromyographic patterns of twelve abdominal and back muscles from twelve healthy participants (five females) were simultaneously recorded. Each participant performed a total number of 24 isometric target-matching tasks using 12 different angular directions and 2 levels of uniaxial and biaxial exertions. Within- and between-subject... 

    Comparison of kinematics of ACL-deficient and healthy knees during passive flexion and isometric leg press

    , Article Knee ; Volume 20, Issue 6 , December , 2013 , Pages 505-510 ; 09680160 (ISSN) Esfandiarpour, F ; Shakourirad, A ; Talebian Moghaddam, S ; Olyaei, G ; Eslami, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Background: Studying the kinematics of the ACL deficient (ACLD) knees, during different physiological activities and muscle contraction patterns, can improve our understanding of the joint's altered biomechanics due to ACL deficiency as well as the efficacy and safety of the rehabilitations exercises. Methods: Twenty-five male volunteers, including 11 normal and 14 unilateral ACLD subjects, participated in this study. The kinematics of the injured knees of the ACLD subjects was compared with their intact knees and the healthy group during passive flexion and isometric leg press with the knees flexed from full extension to 45° flexion, with 15° intervals. An accurate registration algorithm... 

    A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus

    , Article Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology ; Volume 16, Issue 3 , 2017 , Pages 1077-1093 ; 16177959 (ISSN) Elyasi, N ; Karimi Taheri, K ; Narooei, K ; Karimi Taheri, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Verlag  2017
    Abstract
    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney–Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney–Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the... 

    Subject-specific 2D/3D image registration and kinematics-driven musculoskeletal model of the spine

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 57 , 2017 , Pages 18-26 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Eskandari, A. H ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    An essential input to the musculoskeletal (MS) trunk models that estimate muscle and spine forces is kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae. While thorax and pelvis kinematics are usually measured via skin motion capture devices (with inherent errors on the proper identification of the underlying bony landmarks and the relative skin-sensor-bone movements), those of the intervening lumbar vertebrae are commonly approximated at fixed proportions based on the thorax-pelvis kinematics. This study proposes an image-based kinematics measurement approach to drive subject-specific (musculature, geometry, mass, and center of masses) MS models. Kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and... 

    Goal equivalent manifold analysis of task performance in non-specific LBP and healthy subjects during repetitive trunk movement; effect of load, velocity, symmetry

    , Article Human Movement Science ; Volume 51 , 2017 , Pages 72-81 ; 01679457 (ISSN) Chehrehrazi, M ; Sanjari, M. A ; Mokhtarinia, H. R ; Jamshidi, A. A ; Maroufi, N ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Motor abundance allows reliability of motor performance despite its variability. The nature of this variability provides important information on the flexibility of control strategies. This feature of control may be affected by low back pain (LPB) and trunk flexion/extension conditions. Goal equivalent manifold (GEM) analysis was used to quantify the ability to exploit motor abundance during repeated trunk flexion/extension in healthy individuals and people with chronic non-specific LBP (CNSLBP). Kinematic data were collected from 22 healthy volunteers and 22 CNSLBP patients during metronomically timed, repeated trunk flexion/extension in three conditions of symmetry, velocity, and loading;... 

    Role and significance of trunk and upper extremity muscles in walker-assisted paraplegic gait: a case study

    , Article Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ; Volume 24, Issue 1 , 2018 , Pages 18-27 ; 10820744 (ISSN) Baniasad, M ; Farahmand, F ; Arazpour, M ; Zohoor, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Thomas Land Publishers Inc  2018
    Abstract
    Background and Purpose: Understanding the role and significance of trunk and upper extremity muscles in paraplegic gait can help in designing more effective assistive devices for these patients and also provides valuable information for improving muscle strengthening programs. Methods: In a patient with a spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk independently (rating scale of ambulatory capacity, 9) with the aid of bilateral ankle-foot orthosis and a walker, the kinematics, kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of 16 muscles from the trunk and upper and lower extremities were recorded during gait. The onset, cessation, and duration of the EMG signal were associated with the 4 phases... 

    Lower extremity kinematic analysis in male athletes with unilateral anterior cruciate reconstruction in a jump-landing task and its association with return to sport criteria

    , Article BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders ; Volume 20, Issue 1 , 2019 ; 14712474 (ISSN) Norouzi, S ; Esfandiarpour, F ; Mehdizadeh, S ; Yousefzadeh, N. K ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    BioMed Central Ltd  2019
    Abstract
    Background: Return to sport (RTS) criteria are widely being used to identify anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) athletes ready to return to sportive activity and reduce risk of ACL re-injury. However, studies show a high rate of ACL re-injury in athletes who passed RTS criteria. This indicates that the current RTS criteria might not be sufficient to determine return to sport time in ACLR athletes. Previous studies have reported a close association between altered lower limb kinematics and ACL re-injury. However, it is not clear how lower extremity kinematics differs between ACLR athletes who passed the RTS-criteria and who failed. This study compared lower extremity kinematics... 

    Subject-specific loads on the lumbar spine in detailed finite element models scaled geometrically and kinematic-driven by radiography images

    , Article International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering ; Volume 35, Issue 4 , 2019 ; 20407939 (ISSN) Dehghan Hamani, I ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Wiley-Blackwell  2019
    Abstract
    Traditional load-control musculoskeletal and finite element (FE) models of the spine fail to accurately predict in vivo intervertebral joint loads due mainly to the simplifications and assumptions when estimating redundant trunk muscle forces. An alternative powerful protocol that bypasses the calculation of muscle forces is to drive the detailed FE models by image-based in vivo displacements. Development of subject-specific models, however, both involves the risk of extensive radiation exposures while imaging in supine and upright postures and is time consuming in terms of the reconstruction of the vertebrae, discs, ligaments, and facets geometries. This study therefore aimed to introduce a... 

    Assessing the role of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle fatigue using a multi-scale continuum model

    , Article Journal of Theoretical Biology ; Volume 461 , 2019 , Pages 76-83 ; 00225193 (ISSN) Karami, M ; Calvo, B ; Zohoor, H ; Firoozbakhsh, K ; Grasa, J ; Sharif University of Technology
    Academic Press  2019
    Abstract
    The Calcium ion Ca2+ plays a critical role as an initiator and preserving agent of the cross-bridge cycle in the force generation of skeletal muscle. A new multi-scale chemo-mechanical model is presented in order to analyze the role of Ca2+ in muscle fatigue and to predict fatigue behavior. To this end, a cross-bridge kinematic model was incorporated in a continuum based mechanical model, considering a thermodynamic compatible framework. The contractile velocity and the generated active force were directly related to the force-bearing states that were considered for the cross-bridge cycle. In order to determine the values of the model parameters, the output results of an isometric simulation... 

    Design optimization of an above-knee prosthesis based on the kinematics of gait

    , Article 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS'08, Vancouver, BC, 20 August 2008 through 25 August 2008 ; 2008 , Pages 4274-4277 ; 9781424418152 (ISBN) Pejhan, S ; Farahmand, F ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2008
    Abstract
    A dynamic model of an above-knee prosthesis during the complete gait cycle was developed. The model was based on a two-dimensional multi-body mechanical system and included a hydraulic and an elastic controller for the knee and a kinematical driver controller for the prosthetic ankle. The equations of motion were driven using Lagrange method. Simulation of the foot contact was conducted using a two-point penetration contact model. The knee elastic and hydraulic controller units, the knee extension stop, and the kinematical driver controller of the ankle were represented by a spring and a dashpot, a nonlinear spring, and a torsional spring-damper within a standard prosthetic configuration.... 

    Spinal segment ranges of motion, movement coordination, and three-dimensional kinematics during occupational activities in normal-weight and obese individuals

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 123 , 2021 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Ghasemi, M ; Arjmand, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Abstract
    Measurements of spinal segment ranges of motion (RoMs), movement coordination, and three-dimensional kinematics during occupational activities have implications in occupational/clinical biomechanics. Due to the large amount of adipose tissues, obese individuals may have different RoMs, lumbopelvic coordination, and kinematics than normal-weight ones. We aimed to measure/compare trunk, lumbar, and pelvis primary RoMs in all anatomical planes/directions, lumbopelvic ratios (lumbar to pelvis rotations at different trunk angles) in all anatomical planes/directions and three-dimensional spine kinematics during twelve symmetric/asymmetric statics load-handling activities in healthy normal-weight... 

    Muscular activity comparison between non-amputees and transfemoral amputees during normal transient-state walking speed

    , Article Medical Engineering and Physics ; Volume 95 , 2021 , Pages 39-44 ; 13504533 (ISSN) Mehryar, P ; Shourijeh, M. S ; Rezaeian, T ; Khandan, A. R ; Messenger, N ; O'Connor, R ; Farahmand, F ; Dehghani Sanij, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Abstract
    Research question: Would there be differences in muscle activation between healthy subjects’ (HS) dominant leg and transfemoral amputees’ (TFA) intact-leg/contralateral-limb (IL) during normal transient-state walking speed? Methods: The muscle activation patterns are obtained by calculating the linear envelope of the EMG signals for each group. The activation patterns/temporal changes are compared between-population using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results: Individual muscle activity showed significant differences in all muscles except vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (SEM) and tensor fascia latae (TFL) activities. Significance: The information could be used by the therapists...