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    A novel coupled musculoskeletal finite element model of the spine – Critical evaluation of trunk models in some tasks

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 119 , 2021 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Rajaee, M. A ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Abstract
    Spine musculoskeletal (MS) models make simplifying assumptions on the intervertebral joint degrees-of-freedom (rotational and/or translational), representation (spherical or beam-like joints), and properties (linear or nonlinear). They also generally neglect the realistic structure of the joints with disc nuclei/annuli, facets, and ligaments. We aim to develop a novel MS model where trunk muscles are incorporated into a detailed finite element (FE) model of the ligamentous T12-S1 spine thus constructing a gold standard coupled MS-FE model. Model predictions are compared under some tasks with those of our earlier spherical joints, beam joints, and hybrid (uncoupled) MS-FE models. The coupled... 

    A comprehensive approach for the validation of lumbar spine finite element models investigating post-fusion adjacent segment effects

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 121 , 2021 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Azadi, A ; Arjmand, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Abstract
    Spinal fusion surgery is usually followed by accelerated degenerative changes in the unfused segments above and below the treated segment(s), i.e., adjacent segment disease (ASD). While a number of risk factors for ASD have been suggested, its exact pathogenesis remains to be identified. Finite element (FE) models are indispensable tools to investigate mechanical effects of fusion surgeries on post-fusion changes in the adjacent segment kinematics and kinetics. Existing modeling studies validate only their intact FE model against in vitro data and subsequently simulate post-fusion in vivo conditions. The present study provides a novel approach for the comprehensive validation of a lumbar... 

    Uncontrolled manifold analysis of gait kinematic synergy during normal and narrow path walking in individuals with knee osteoarthritis compared to asymptomatic individuals

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 141 , 2022 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Shafizadegan, Z ; Sarrafzadeh, J ; Farahmand, F ; Salehi, R ; Rasouli, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common musculoskeletal disorder resulting in altered gait patterns. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis has been demonstrated as a useful approach for quantitative analysis of motor variability and synergies. The present study aimed to investigate the changes in the kinematic synergy, controlling the center of mass (COM) position while walking on normal and narrow paths in people with KOA compared to asymptomatic participants. In this cross-sectional study, twenty people with mild to moderate KOA and twenty asymptomatic individuals walked at their comfortable preferred speed across normal and narrow paths on a treadmill. The UCM analysis was performed... 

    Novel force–displacement control passive finite element models of the spine to simulate intact and pathological conditions; comparisons with traditional passive and detailed musculoskeletal models

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 141 , 2022 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Abbasi-Ghiri, A ; Ebrahimkhani, M ; Arjmand, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Passive finite element (FE) models of the spine are commonly used to simulate intact and various pre- and postoperative pathological conditions. Being devoid of muscles, these traditional models are driven by simplistic loading scenarios, e.g., a constant moment and compressive follower load (FL) that do not properly mimic the complex in vivo loading condition under muscle exertions. We aim to develop novel passive FE models that are driven by more realistic yet simple loading scenarios, i.e., in vivo vertebral rotations and pathological-condition dependent FLs (estimated based on detailed musculoskeletal finite element (MS-FE) models). In these novel force–displacement control FE models,... 

    The association between motor modules and movement primitives of gait: A muscle and kinematic synergy study

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 134 , 2022 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Esmaeili, S ; Karami, H ; Baniasad, M ; Shojaeefard, M ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    In spite of the extensive literature on the analysis of the muscle synergies during gait, the functionality of these synergies has not been studied in detail. This study explored the relationship between the motor modules and the kinematic maneuvers involved in human walking. Motion and surface electromyography data (of 28 trunk and lower extremity muscles) were acquired from ten healthy subjects during ten trials of self-selected speed gait each. The joint angle trajectories were half-wave rectified and divided into two independent positive directional degrees-of-freedom. The muscle and kinematic synergies were both extracted using the non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) technique and... 

    Early post-operative performance of an anatomically designed hybrid thread interference screw for ACL reconstruction: A comparative study

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 135 , 2022 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Daneshvarhashjin, N ; Chizari, M ; Javad Mortazavi, S. M ; Rouhi, G ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Although the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using interference screw is a well-accepted surgical procedure, patients still suffer graft failure in the initial rehabilitation phase. Graft fixation stability of a newly designed anatomical hybrid thread tapered interference screw (AHTTIS) was compared with a conventional standard one (CSIS) by conducting in-vitro mechanical tests. According to the CSIS manufacturer's instruction, eight tapered bone tunnels, matching AHTTIS geometry, and eight straight cylindrical tunnels were drilled in artificial bone blocks. Bovine tendon grafts were fixed using AHTTIS and CSIS in their corresponding bone tunnels. Each graft was subjected to... 

    Symmetric and asymmetric bimanual coordination and freezing of gait in Parkinsonian patients in drug phases

    , Article Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ; Volume 1511, Issue 1 , 2022 , Pages 244-261 ; 00778923 (ISSN) Fathipour Azar, Z ; Azad, A ; Akbarfahimi, M ; Behzadipour, S ; Taghizadeh, G ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Inc  2022
    Abstract
    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a debilitating symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which may be associated with motor control impairments in tasks other than gait. This study aimed to examine whether symmetric and asymmetric bimanual coordination is impaired in PD with FOG (PD +FOG) patients and whether dual-task and drug phases may affect bimanual coordination in these patients. Twenty PD +FOG patients, 20 PD patients without FOG (PD –FOG) performed symmetric and asymmetric functional bimanual tasks (reach to and pick up a box and open a drawer to press a pushbutton inside it, respectively) under single-task and dual-task conditions. PD patients were evaluated during on- and... 

    Improved artificial neural networks for 3D body posture and lumbosacral moment predictions during manual material handling activities

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 131 , 2022 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Mohseni, M ; Aghazadeh, F ; Arjmand, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    Body posture measurement approaches, required in biomechanical models to assess risk of musculoskeletal injuries, are usually costly and/or impractical for use in real workplaces. Therefore, we recently developed three artificial neural networks (ANNs), based on measured posture data on several individuals, to predict whole body 3D posture (coordinates of 15 markers located on body's main joints), segmental orientations (Euler angles of 14 body segments), and lumbosacral (L5-S1) moments during static manual material handling (MMH) activities (ANNPosture, ANNAngle, and ANNMoment, respectively). These ANNs require worker's body height, body weight (only for ANNMoment), hand-load 3D position,... 

    Relative performances of artificial neural network and regression mapping tools in evaluation of spinal loads and muscle forces during static lifting

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 46, Issue 8 , 2013 , Pages 1454-1462 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Arjmand, N ; Ekrami, O ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Plamondon, A ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    Two artificial neural networks (ANNs) are constructed, trained, and tested to map inputs of a complex trunk finite element (FE) model to its outputs for spinal loads and muscle forces. Five input variables (thorax flexion angle, load magnitude, its anterior and lateral positions, load handling technique, i.e., one- or two-handed static lifting) and four model outputs (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) for spinal loads and 76 model outputs (forces in individual trunk muscles) are considered. Moreover, full quadratic regression equations mapping input-outputs of the model developed here for muscle forces and previously for spine loads are used to compare the... 

    Effect of intervertebral translational flexibilities on estimations of trunk muscle forces, kinematics, loads, and stability

    , Article Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering ; Volume 18, Issue 16 , Sep , 2015 , Pages 1760-1767 ; 10255842 (ISSN) Ghezelbash, F ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    Due to the complexity of the human spinal motion segments, the intervertebral joints are often simulated in the musculoskeletal trunk models as pivots thus allowing no translational degrees of freedom (DOFs). This work aims to investigate, for the first time, the effect of such widely used assumption on trunk muscle forces, spinal loads, kinematics, and stability during a number of static activities. To address this, the shear deformable beam elements used in our nonlinear finite element (OFE) musculoskeletal model of the trunk were either substantially stiffened in translational directions (SFE model) or replaced by hinge joints interconnected through rotational springs (HFE model). Results... 

    The effects of movement speed on kinematic variability and dynamic stability of the trunk in healthy individuals and low back pain patients

    , Article Clinical Biomechanics ; Volume 30, Issue 7 , Aug , 2015 , Pages 682-688 ; 02680033 (ISSN) Asgari, M ; Sanjari, M. A ; Mokhtarinia, H. R ; Moeini Sedeh, S ; Khalaf, K ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    Background: Comparison of the kinematic variability and dynamic stability of the trunk between healthy and low back pain patient groups can contribute to gaining valuable information about the movement patterns and neuromotor strategies involved in various movement tasks. Methods: Fourteen chronic low back pain patients with mild symptoms and twelve healthy male volunteers performed repeated trunk flexion-extension movements in the sagittal plane at three different speeds: 20 cycles/min, self-selected, and 40 cycles/min. Mean standard deviations, coefficient of variation and variance ratio as variability measures; maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents and maximum Floquet multipliers as... 

    Effect of body weight on spinal loads in various activities: A personalized biomechanical modeling approach

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 48, Issue 2 , 2015 , Pages 276-282 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Hajihosseinali, M ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    Epidemiological studies are divided over the causative role of body weight (BW) in low back pain. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable approach to examine the effect of changes in BW on spinal loads and risk of back pain. Changes in BW have not been properly simulated by previous models as associated alterations in model inputs on the musculature and moment arm of gravity loads have been neglected. A detailed, multi-joint, scalable model of the thoracolumbar spine is used to study the effect of BW (varying at five levels, i.e., 51, 68, 85, 102, and 119kg) on the L5-S1 spinal loads during various static symmetric activities while scaling moment arms and physiological cross-sectional areas of... 

    Comparative evaluation of six quantitative lifting tools to estimate spine loads during static activities

    , Article Applied Ergonomics ; Volume 48 , 2015 , Pages 22-32 ; 00036870 (ISSN) Rajaee, M. A ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Plamondon, A ; Schmidt, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    Different lifting analysis tools are commonly used to assess spinal loads and risk of injury. Distinct musculoskeletal models with various degrees of accuracy are employed in these tools affecting thus their relative accuracy in practical applications. The present study aims to compare predictions of six tools (HCBCF, LSBM, 3DSSPP, AnyBody, simple polynomial, and regression models) for the L4-L5 and L5-S1 compression and shear loads in twenty-six static activities with and without hand load. Significantly different spinal loads but relatively similar patterns for the compression (R2>0.87) were computed. Regression models and AnyBody predicted intradiscal pressures in closer agreement with... 

    Nanomechanical properties of MscL α helices: A steered molecular dynamics study

    , Article Channels ; Volume 11, Issue 3 , 2017 , Pages 209-223 ; 19336950 (ISSN) Bavi, N ; Bavi, O ; Vossoughi, M ; Naghdabadi, R ; Hill, A. P ; Martinac, B ; Jamali, Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2017
    Abstract
    Gating of mechanosensitive (MS) channels is driven by a hierarchical cascade of movements and deformations of transmembrane helices in response to bilayer tension. Determining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the individual transmembrane helices is therefore central to understanding the intricacies of the gating mechanism of MS channels. We used a constant-force steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to perform unidirectional pulling tests on all the helices of MscL in M. tuberculosis and E. coli homologs. Using this method, we could overcome the issues encountered with the commonly used constant-velocity SMD simulations, such as low mechanical stability of the helix during... 

    A regenerative approach towards recovering the mechanical properties of degenerated intervertebral discs: Genipin and platelet-rich plasma therapies

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine ; Volume 231, Issue 2 , 2017 , Pages 127-137 ; 09544119 (ISSN) Nikkhoo, M ; Wang, J. L ; Abdollahi, M ; Hsu, Y. C ; Parnianpour, M ; Khalaf, K ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd  2017
    Abstract
    Degenerative disc disease, associated with discrete structural changes in the peripheral annulus and vertebral endplate, is one of the most common pathological triggers of acute and chronic low back pain, significantly depreciating an individual's quality of life and instigating huge socioeconomic costs. Novel emerging therapeutic techniques are hence of great interest to both research and clinical communities alike. Exogenous crosslinking, such as Genipin, and platelet-rich plasma therapies have been recently demonstrated encouraging results for the repair and regeneration of degenerated discs, but there remains a knowledge gap regarding the quantitative degree of effectiveness and... 

    The effect of functional bracing on the arthrokinematics of anterior cruciate ligament injured knees during lunge exercise

    , Article Gait and Posture ; Volume 63 , 2018 , Pages 52-57 ; 09666362 (ISSN) Jalali, M ; Farahmand, F ; Esfandiarpour, F ; Golestanha, S. A ; Akbar, M ; Eskandari, A ; Mousavi, S. E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2018
    Abstract
    Background: Functional knee braces are extensively used for partially and completely torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients and those who have undergone ACL graft reconstruction, in order to support the healing ACL, improve the joint's functional stability, and restore the normal joint kinematics. Research question: Does wearing braces alter the arthrokinematics of the ACL deficient knees during lung exercise? Methods: For ten male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, 3D knee models were reconstructed from CT images, acquired in rest position. Sagittal plane fluoroscopy was then performed throughout a complete cycle of lunge in braced and non-braced conditions. The 3D kinematics of the... 

    Phenomenological tissue fracture modeling for an Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery training system based on experimental data

    , Article Medical Engineering and Physics ; Volume 68 , 2019 , Pages 85-93 ; 13504533 (ISSN) Sadeghnejad, S ; Farahmand, F ; Vossoughi, G ; Moradi, H ; Mousa Sadr Hosseini, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2019
    Abstract
    The ideal simulator for Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery (ESSS)training must be supported by a physical model and provide repetitive behavior in a controlled environment. Development of realistic tissue models is a key part of ESSS virtual reality (VR)-based surgical simulation. Considerable research has been conducted to address haptic or force feedback and propose a phenomenological tissue fracture model for sino-nasal tissue during surgical tool indentation. Mechanical properties of specific sino-nasal regions of the sheep head have been studied in various indentation and relaxation experiments. Tool insertion at different indentation rates into coronal orbital floor (COF)tissue is... 

    Improvement of upper limb motor control and function after competitive and noncompetitive volleyball exercises in chronic stroke survivors: a randomized clinical trial

    , Article Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation ; Volume 100, Issue 3 , 2019 , Pages 401-411 ; 00039993 (ISSN) Mandehgary Najafabadi, M ; Azad, A ; Mehdizadeh, H ; Behzadipour, S ; Fakhar, M ; Taghavi Azar Sharabiani, P ; Parnianpour, M ; Taghizadeh, G ; Khalaf, K ; Sharif University of Technology
    W.B. Saunders  2019
    Abstract
    Objectives: To investigate the effects of competitive and noncompetitive volleyball exercises on the functional performance and motor control of the upper limbs in chronic stroke survivors. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting: Outpatient rehabilitation center. Participants: Chronic stroke survivors (N=48). Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to competitive (n=16) or noncompetitive (n=16) volleyball exercise groups (60min/d volleyball exercise+30min/d traditional rehabilitation, 3d/wk for 7wk) and control group (n=16). Main Outcome Measures: Reach and grasp motor control measures were evaluated through kinematic analysis. Functional outcomes were assessed via Motor... 

    Hypersensitivity of trunk biomechanical model predictions to errors in image-based kinematics when using fully displacement-control techniques

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 84 , 2019 , Pages 161-171 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Eskandari, A. H ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2019
    Abstract
    Recent advances in medical imaging techniques have allowed pure displacement-control trunk models to estimate spinal loads with no need to calculate muscle forces. Sensitivity of these models to the errors in post-imaging evaluation of displacements (reported to be ∼0.4–0.9° and 0.2–0.3 mm in vertebral displacements) has not yet been investigated. A Monte Carlo analysis was therefore used to assess the sensitivity of results in both musculoskeletal (MS) and passive finite element (FE) spine models to errors in measured displacements. Six static activities in upright standing, flexed, and extended postures were initially simulated using a force-control hybrid MS-FE model. Computed vertebral... 

    A three-dimensional statistical volume element for histology informed micromechanical modeling of brain white matter

    , Article Annals of Biomedical Engineering ; Volume 48, Issue 4 , 2020 , Pages 1337-1353 Hoursan, H ; Farahmand, F ; Ahmadian, M. T ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer  2020
    Abstract
    This study presents a novel statistical volume element (SVE) for micromechanical modeling of the white matter structures, with histology-informed randomized distribution of axonal tracts within the extracellular matrix. The model was constructed based on the probability distribution functions obtained from the results of diffusion tensor imaging as well as the histological observations of scanning electron micrograph, at two structures of white matter susceptible to traumatic brain injury, i.e. corpus callosum and corona radiata. A simplistic representative volume element (RVE) with symmetrical arrangement of fully alligned axonal fibers was also created as a reference for comparison. A...