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    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based photocatalysts for solar hydrogen generation: Recent advances and future development directions

    , Article Journal of Materials Chemistry A ; Volume 5, Issue 45 , 2017 , Pages 23406-23433 ; 20507488 (ISSN) Naseri, A ; Samadi, M ; Pourjavadi, A ; Moshfegh, A. Z ; Ramakrishna, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Royal Society of Chemistry  2017
    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a metal-free conjugated polymer constructed from two-dimensional sheets with a bandgap energy of 2.7 eV, which makes it an applicable and efficient visible-active photocatalyst for H2 production. In the present study, the basic concepts and principles of photocatalytic water splitting have been discussed, and a guide for the selection of appropriate photocatalysts, focusing on the g-C3N4 nanomaterials, has been proposed. Our approach is mainly concentrated on evaluating two factors, namely the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion and apparent quantum yield (AQY) for different photocatalysts, to provide an in-depth analysis and a framework for solar H2... 

    Elucidation of charge recombination and accumulation mechanism in mixed perovskite solar cells

    , Article Journal of Physical Chemistry C ; Volume 122, Issue 27 , 2018 , Pages 15149-15154 ; 19327447 (ISSN) Yadav, P ; Turren Cruz, S. H ; Prochowicz, D ; Tavakoli, M. M ; Pandey, K ; Zakeeruddin, S. M ; Gratzel, M ; Hagfeldt, A ; Saliba, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2018
    Organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have gained considerable attention owing to their impressive photovoltaic properties and simple device manufacturing. In general, PSC employs a perovskite absorber material sandwiched between an electron and hole selective transport layer optimized with respect to optimal band alignment, efficient charge collection, and low interfacial recombination. The interfaces between the perovskite absorber and respective selective contacts play a crucial role in determining photovoltaic performance and stability of PSCs. However, a fundamental understanding is lacking, and there is poor understanding in controlling the physical processes at the... 

    New organic dyes with diphenylamine core for dye-sensitized solar cells

    , Article Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics ; Volume 29, Issue 8 , April , 2018 , Pages 6323-6336 ; 09574522 (ISSN) Salimi Beni, A. R ; Karami, M ; Hosseinzadeh, B ; Ghahary, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer New York LLC  2018
    In the current investigation, four novel donoracceptor type organic dyes including (DPA-Ba, DPA-Hy, DPA-Rh, DPA-Cy), are proposed and their photophysical and electrochemical properties as well as dye-sensitized solar cell performance are systematically investigated. Among these dyes diphenylamine is utilized as an-electron donor while barbituric acid, hydantoin, rhodanine-n-acetic acid and cyano acetic acid, are proposed as anchoring groups as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized dyes are characterized using FT-IR, NMR, mass spectrometry, absorbance and electrochemical measurements. The photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of the solar cells based on... 

    Productivity enhancement of solar stills by nano-coating of condensing surface

    , Article Desalination ; Volume 454 , 2019 , Pages 1-9 ; 00119164 (ISSN) Zanganeh, P ; Soltani Goharrizi, A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Feilizadeh, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Wettability is one of the most important factors which significantly influences solar still efficiency. Moreover, it determines the condensation mode, i.e., filmwise or dropwise condensation. In the present study, materials with different wettability were applied as the condensing surface to evaluate the effect of wettability on the distillate production of a single slope solar still. To compare the effects of dropwise and filmwise condensation on the condensate yield, the wettability of the condensing surface was changed by applying a nano-silicon solution according to a dip coating technique. All the experiments were conducted at three surface inclination angles. The results revealed that... 

    Photovoltaic parameters and stability study of HTM-free mixed-cation perovskite solar cells by incorporating additives to absorbing layers

    , Article Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics ; Volume 31, Issue 9 , 2020 , Pages 7123-7132 Doosthosseini, F ; Behjat, A ; Karimi Zarchi, A ; Taghavinia, N ; Mirjalili, B. F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer  2020
    In this study, quick route-coating is practiced to substitute methyl ammonium (MA) cation with formamidinium (FA) at different ratios. Through optimizing the MA:FA ratio, a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.31% is achieved for holes transporting material-free MA0.8FA0.2PbI3 mixed PSCs with the JSC of 19.02 mA/cm2, VOC of 0.859 V and FF of 50.88%. Then, to improve the performance, stability and carrier transport dynamic, various additives (PVA, PVP, PEG and EC) are incorporated into the perovskite layer. The treatment of perovskites with additives has proved to cause significant changes in the surface roughness, charge accumulation, charge transport, charge transport resistance,... 

    Reverse osmosis desalination for irrigation in a pistachio orchard

    , Article Desalination ; Volume 516 , 2021 ; 00119164 (ISSN) Rahimi, B ; Afzali, M ; Farhadi, F ; Alamolhoda, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Nowadays, the salinisation of groundwaters causes a substantial reduction in the yield of agricultural lands. To reduce the impact of this problem on the profitability of the lands, farmers tend to use desalination processes. However, this transition is not simple and some technical, economic, and environmental issues should be considered. In this study, we highlight some key factors for the use of desalination processes in the agricultural sector. Also, we conduct a techno-economic evaluation of using reverse osmosis desalination in a pistachio orchard as a high-value crop. Moreover, because of the solar energy potential in the location of the case study, the use of solar panels is assessed... 

    A dynamic multi-sector analysis of technological catch-up: The impact of technology cycle times, knowledge base complexity and variety

    , Article Research Policy ; Volume 50, Issue 3 , 2021 ; 00487333 (ISSN) Rosiello, A ; Maleki, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    This article contributes to the ongoing debate about whether, how, and under what conditions latecomer countries can become producers of new technology and innovation, thereby catching up with technological leaders. Recent work on sectoral systems of innovation and in the evolutionary economics literature suggests that successful latecomers can move into new technological or industrial domains. They specialise in domains that present more frequent windows of opportunity, shorter technological cycles, flatter learning curves and easier access to relevant knowledge than others. This study investigates the role and significance of two hitherto neglected dimensions of technological regimes that... 

    Solution-processed perovskite thin-films: The journey from lab: The large-scale solar cells

    , Article Energy and Environmental Science ; Volume 14, Issue 11 , 2021 , Pages 5690-5722 ; 17545692 (ISSN) Saki, Z ; Byranvand, M. M ; Taghavinia, N ; Kedia, M ; Saliba, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Royal Society of Chemistry  2021
    In the last decade, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solution-processed perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in the lab-scale has reached an incredible level of 25.5%. Generally, PSCs are composed of a stack consisting of a perovskite thin-film sandwiched between an electron transporting layer (ETL) and a hole transporting layer (HTL). Although the quality of the ETL and HTL interfaces with the perovskite thin-film is important, the quality of the perovskite thin-film is also critical to achieving high-performance PSCs. Low-temperature deposition of organic-inorganic perovskite thin-films by simple solution processes is one of the significant advantages of PSCs compared to other... 

    Optimal investment and operation of a microgrid to provide electricity and heat

    , Article IET Renewable Power Generation ; Volume 15, Issue 12 , 2021 , Pages 2586-2595 ; 17521416 (ISSN) Angarita, J. L ; Jafari, H ; Mohseni, M ; Al Sumaiti, A. S ; Heydarian Forushani, E ; Kumar, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Inc  2021
    This paper proposes a robust investment and operation model to attend the power and heat needs of a microgrid (MG) connected to the distribution system. The optimization algorithm decides on the best investment and operation of combined heat and power (CHP), boilers, PV power generation and battery energy storage systems (BESS). For the BESS, the algorithm estimates the optimal energy storage capacity (MWh) as well as the maximum hourly delivery capacity (MW). The non-linear and non-concave heat rate chart is recast by a mix-integer linear model to have a tractable and precise model. The model considers the uncertain in some parameters using probability density function (pdf) to portrait its... 

    Techno-economic and environmental analysis of an integrated standalone hybrid solar hydrogen system to supply CCHP loads of a greenhouse in Iran

    , Article International Journal of Green Energy ; Volume 14, Issue 3 , 2017 , Pages 295-309 ; 15435075 (ISSN) Homayouni, F ; Roshandel, R ; Hamidi, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    The techno-economic and environmental performance of hybrid solar hydrogen energy systems was investigated to provide combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) demands of a standalone greenhouse in Iran to achieve sustainable agriculture based on an optimization procedure. From the environmental point of view, by deploying hybrid energy systems, 83%, to 100% of emissions can be avoided. Also a sensitivity analysis was performed on the hybrid energy systems in order to study the effect of major parameter variation on the systems justification. It was concluded that hybrid solar systems are economically competitive with conventional systems, for high solar intensity locations with high diesel... 

    Sizing and performance analysis of standalone hybrid photovoltaic/battery/hydrogen storage technology power generation systems based on the energy hub concept

    , Article International Journal of Green Energy ; Volume 14, Issue 2 , 2017 , Pages 121-134 ; 15435075 (ISSN) Homayouni, F ; Roshandel, R ; Hamidi, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2017
    In this study, the optimal sizing and performance analysis of a standalone integrated solar power system equipped with different storage scenarios to supply the power demand of a household is presented. One of the main purposes when applying solar energy resource is to face the increasing environmental pollutions resulting from fossil fuel based electricity sector. To this end, and to compare and examine two energy storage technologies (battery and hydrogen storage technology), three storage scenarios including battery only, hydrogen storage technology only and hybrid storage options are evaluated. An optimization framework based on Energy Hub concept is used to determine the optimum sizes... 

    Design and modeling of an integrated CHP system with solar hydrogen/methane fueled pem fuel cell for residential applications

    , Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) ; Vol. 6B , November , 2014 ; ISBN: 9780791849521 Amirian, H ; Sayedin, F ; Maroufmashat, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    This paper describes the designing and evaluation of an alternative energy system which consists of PEMFC, PV, PEM electrolyser, methane reformer and hydrogen tank. In order to find out the minimum capacity of the components, a system sizing model is developed in MATLAB based on meteorological and electrical demand data. Three scenarios are considered based on different combinations of solar energy and fossil fuel energy as energy resources. The heating energy produced by the fuel cell is recovered for supplying domestic hot water while the system would supply electrical energy. Results show that system sizing strongly depends on scenarios and unit cost of electricity decreases through the... 

    Cooperative hybrid ARQ in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    , Article Microelectronics Reliability ; Volume 52, Issue 12 , 2012 , Pages 3043-3052 ; 00262714 (ISSN) Jalali, F ; Khodadoustan, S ; Ejlali, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Energy harvesters are used in today's Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to harvest energy from the environment. Although an energy harvester can provide a supply source with a much greater lifetime than a battery, the amount of available energy for an energy harvesting system is a random variable. Furthermore, the proper management of energy harvesters has a considerable impact on reliability. It has been observed that cooperative error control mechanisms like Cooperative Automatic Repeat Request (C-ARQ) and Cooperative Hybrid ARQ (C-HARQ) can be used for improving the energy management and reliability in Energy Harvesting WSNs (EH-WSNs). Recently, the impact of C-ARC mechanism has been... 

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on a single layer deposition of TiO 2 from a new formulation paste and their photovoltaic performance

    , Article Solar Energy ; Volume 86, Issue 9 , 2012 , Pages 2654-2664 ; 0038092X (ISSN) Mohammadi, M. R ; Louca, R. R. M ; Fray, D. J ; Welland, M. E ; Sharif University of Technology
    A new strategy for enhancing the efficiency and reducing the production cost of TiO 2 solar cells by design of a new formulated TiO 2 paste with tailored crystal structure and morphology is reported. The conventional three- or four-fold layer deposition process was eliminated and replaced by a single layer deposition of TiO 2 compound. Different TiO 2 pastes with various crystal structures, morphologies and crystallite sizes were prepared by an aqueous particulate sol-gel process. Based on simultaneous differential thermal (SDT) analysis the minimum annealing temperature to obtain organic-free TiO 2 paste was determined at 400°C, being one of the lowest crystallization temperatures of TiO 2... 

    Nonlinear adaptive control of grid-connected three-phase inverters for renewable energy applications

    , Article International Journal of Control ; 2015 ; 00207179 (ISSN) Mahdian Dehkordi, N ; Namvar, M ; Karimi, H ; Piya, P ; Karimi Ghartemani, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Distributed generation (DG) units are often interfaced to the main grid using power electronic converters including voltage-source converters (VSCs). A VSC offers dc/ac power conversion, high controllability, and fast dynamic response. Because of nonlinearities, uncertainties, and system parameters’ changes involved in the nature of a grid-connected renewable DG system, conventional linear control methods cannot completely and efficiently address all control objectives. In this paper, a nonlinear adaptive control scheme based on adaptive backstepping strategy is presented to control the operation of a grid-connected renewable DG unit. As compared to the popular vector control technique, the... 

    Year-round outdoor experiments on a multi-stage active solar still with different numbers of solar collectors

    , Article Applied Energy ; Volume 152 , 2015 , Pages 39-46 ; 03062619 (ISSN) Feilizadeh, M ; Karimi Estahbanati, M. R ; Jafarpur, K ; Roostaazad, R ; Feilizadeh, M ; Taghvaei, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    The present work investigated the outdoor performance of a basin type multi-stage solar still as well as the effect of collector over basin area (CBA) ratio on the distillate production. The effect of CBA was studied in outdoor experiments for the first time. The system consisted of a still coupled with one, two or three flat-plate solar collectors. In order to study the effect of CBA more accurately, the experiments were conducted in both winter and summer. In these experiments, the distilled water production of the multi-stage still was measured during the whole 24. h of a day on an hourly basis. The results revealed that in the winter, the basin coupled to one solar collector (CBA. =... 

    Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells based on carbon-doped TiO2 hollow spheres and nanoparticles

    , Article Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics ; Volume 26, Issue 11 , 2015 , Pages 8863-8876 ; 09574522 (ISSN) Tabari Saadi, Y ; Mohammadi, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer New York LLC  2015
    Different structures of TiO2 photoelectrodes are fabricated with various arrangement modes of the layers. TiO2 nanoparticles, synthesized by stabilizing agent free non-hydrolytic sol–gel method, are employed as the under layer, whereas carbon-doped TiO2 hollow spheres, prepared by hydrothermally grown carbon template, are used as the scattering layer of solar cells. The nanoparticles (22 nm) have anatase structure, while 300–700 nm hollow spheres show mixtures of anatase and rutile phases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that carbon is doped into TiO2 hollow spheres, resulting in a decrease in band gap energy in the range 2.96–3.13 eV compared with 3.04 eV band gap energy for the... 

    Nitrogen-doped submicron-size TiO2 particles as bifunctional light scatterers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    , Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing ; Volume 119, Issue 4 , 2015 , Pages 1283-1290 ; 09478396 (ISSN) Shogh, S ; Mohammadpour, R ; Iraji zad, A ; Taghavinia, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Verlag  2015
    The structural, electrical, optical, and photovoltaic properties of aggregated submicron nitrogen-doped TiO2 particles (NTiO2) and the influence of utilizing them, in comparison with undoped ones, as the light-scattering layer of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and diffuse reflectance spectra showed that both type samples have similar morphology, crystal phase, and scattering feature. Moreover, photoluminescence, Mott–Schottkey, and photovoltaic characteristics such as IMPS/IMVS and charge extraction analysis indicated that the NTiO2 layer is an efficient scatterer in two aspects: enhancement of light-harvesting... 

    Development of the energy hub networks based on distributed energy technologies

    , Article Simulation Series, 26 July 2015 through 29 July 2015 ; Volume 47, Issue 10 , 2015 , Pages 216-223 ; 07359276 (ISSN) Maroufmashat, A ; Elkamel, A ; Sattari Khavas, S ; Fowler, M ; Roshandel, R ; Elsholkami, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    The Society for Modeling and Simulation International  2015
    In this paper the creation of multiple energy hubs that make up a complex energy network are modeled and optimized for a selection of six scenarios to examine both their financial viability and potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. As a proposed case study scenario for the model, three energy hubs are considered: a 'residential complex (RC)', a 'commercial shopping plaza (CS)', and a 'school (S)'. The use of combined heat and power systems, solar photovoltaic, solar collectors and network interaction are also examined for their impact on efficiency and cost. The modeling is undertaken and carried out by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). It is shown that cost can be reduced... 

    The impact of climate condition on the optimal size of direct coupled photovoltaic-electrolyzer systems

    , Article Simulation Series, 26 July 2015 through 29 July 2015 ; Volume 47, Issue 10 , July , 2015 , Pages 224-229 ; 07359276 (ISSN) Sayedin, F ; Maroufmashat, A ; Sattari khavas S ; Elkamel, A ; Aladwani, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    The Society for Modeling and Simulation International  2015
    Solar energy exists extensively in all parts of the world. However the intermittency of solar energy presents critical challenges to PV system. The intermittency can be covered by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. This process can be performed by photovoltaic powered electrolysis of water. The energy transfer efficiency between PV and electrolyzer is subject to the distance between maximum power points (MPP) of PV module and operating points. The operating points can be adjusted by optimizing the design parameters of the electrolyzer but the maximum power points are function of PV module characteristics, solar radiation and ambient temperature. Therefore the weather...