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    Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Aerobic)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yaghoobinezhad, Farnaz (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this research, start-up, performance and stability of a A2O system (Anaerobic/ Anoxic/ Oxic) combined with a Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR), using Kaldnes packings, have been investigated in treating synthetic dairy wastewater. Also the effect of influent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Hydroulic Retention Time (HRT) and Ruturn Activated Sludge (RAS) ratio on removing pollutants such as COD, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous have been studied. The experiments have been designed using ‘Design Of Experiments’ software, and at the end the results have been optimized based on desired terms. The performance and capability of the reactor in removing pollutants in 8, 12 and 16 hours of HRT,... 

    Investigation on Insulin Release from Microcapsules Containing Beta Cell

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hosseinzadeh, Zahra (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes, may present at any age, but is the most common type of diabetes affecting children and adolescents. People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin. This type accounts for 5-10% of all types of diabetes. In this type of diabetes, beta cell destruction occurs in the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not secrete any insulin; insulin is a hormone that enables the body to convert glucose in food into energy. If sugar in the blood cannot enter the cells, it accumulates in the arteries and results in high blood sugar. High blood sugar over time can have irreversible effects on various parts of the body. Curcumin... 

    Optimization of Insulin Releasing from Hydrogel Encapsulated Beta Cells

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Abbasi Jamaati, Parisa (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Beta cells are responsible for secreting insulin to maintain normoglycaemia throughout the individual’s life. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by an autoimmune response that promotes the destruction of beta-cells within the pancreatic islets, resulting in lifelong inadequate insulin secretion. Encapsulating beta cells inside a semipermeable membrane to protect encapsulated cells from direct contact with the host immune system, is a new way to treat type 1 diabetes without the need for long-term immunosuppression. . In this case, the semipermeable membrane surrounds the cells and allows oxygen, nutrients, and cell products to penetrate bilaterally while... 

    Optimization for Production & Purification of Asparaginase Enzyme

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Dashtban Kenari, Laleh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Maghsodi, Vida (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The enzyme L-Asparaginase (L-asparagine amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.1) has been thoroughly researched by many researchers worldwide because of its immensely useful medical applications. It can catalyze the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia that is effective for the cure of leukemia, especially for puerile Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia [ALL] and Lymphosarcomas. The present study discusses the studies carried out for the optimal production of the enzyme from Escherichia coli ATCC 11303. For extraction of the intracellular enzyme, Sonication is more useful method for cell disruption than alkali lysis and enzymatic method. We improved Luria Bertani (LB) media (tryptone 1% w/v,... 

    Production and Investigation of Properties of a Nanocomposite for Food Packaging

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Dadfar, Mohammad Ali (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manuchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Nanocomposite films based on low density polyethylene (LDPE), containing of 2, 3, and 4 wt% organoclay (OC) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer as a new compatibilizer were prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, tensile tests, and oxygen permeation measurements. There was no exfoliation or intercalation of the clay layers in the absence of EVA, while an obvious increase in d-spacing was observed when the samples were prepared with EVA present. This issue was reflected in the properties of nanocomposites. The oxygen barrier properties of the OC/EVA/LDPE film were significantly better than those of the OC/LDPE film. The average aspect ratio of clay platelets in... 

    Improvement of Edible Oil by Interestrification Process by Lipase

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kouchak Yazdi, Zahra (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Razavi, Jalil (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Fats and oils are one of the main human food diet components that provide the necessary fatty acids for our body. So the fatty acids available in consuming oils are so important. In this research the mixture of palm and sunflower oils with different compounds: (80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80) were used for preparing free- trans shortening by interesterification. For this purpose a special stabilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) were used and performed the physicochemical properties: free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, slip melting point, solid fat content, P-anisidine value, soap, oxidative stability at 110 0C, and the profile of fatty acids on the primitive blends and final samples... 

    Production of Food Emulsifier

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Amin Mahalati, Alireza (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manuchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This research relates to an improved method for making surfactant esters, especially sorbitan monostearate and tristearate. Sorbitan esters of fatty acid, stearate are derived from a reaction between sorbitan and fatty acid. Sorbitan fatty acid ester called sorbitan ester, are surfactants highly safe to use on human body and are widely used as a food additive in the production process as emulsifiers. Sorbitan esters are well known emulsifiers suitable for use in food, pharmaceutical products as well as many other applications. Despite its simple name, sorbitan ester is complex mixture of molecules. One such technique involves direct esterification of sorbitol or an intramolecular condensate... 

    Preperation and Properties of Biodegradable Nanocomposites Packaging Films

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pourkhanali Jirandehi, Khadijeh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Increasing use of polymeric materials, especially in the packaging industry, besides the problems that exist in recycling these materials, has become a serious concern for the environment. The synthetic polymers are used widely in packaging industry so they have a considerable role in waste production in packaging industry. One way to solve this problem is adding a natural polymer to the synthetic polymer, as a result it becomes friendly environmentally. Starch is one of these natural polymers which is cheap and has the ability to complete degradation in the environment.using row starch in the polymeric compounds causes a severe drop in compound’s properties. For this reason, row starch must... 

    Optimization of Asparaginase Immobilization on Carrier

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bahraman, Fatemeh (Author) ; Alemzadeh , Iran (Supervisor) ; Kazemi, Akhtarolmolok (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The enzyme L-asparaginase (L-asparagine amidohydroxylase , EC 3.5.1.1) is utilizable in the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia. L-asparaginase catalyses the hydrolysis of the amino acid L- asparagines to L-aspartic acid and ammonia. Unlike normal cells,malignant cells which can only slowly synthesize L-asparagine , are killed by lacking exogenous supply. In contrast, normal cells are protected from Asn-starvation due to their ability to produce this amino acid.
    In this study , L- asparaginase from E.coli, was immobilized onto a polymeric compound, poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) with cross-linking agent glutaraldehyde and calcium alginate beads .. Herein ,with the use of the... 

    Design and Fabrication of a Microfluidic Device for Hydrodynamic Label-Free Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells From Blood

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Dorri Giv, Dina (Author) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells which shed from the primary tumor, enter circulation and spread cancer all over the body. CTCs give valuable information about cancer and can help diagnosis and prognosis. Hence separating and isolating CTCs from blood is a necessity for cancer therapeutics. CTCs are separated from blood cells by their different physical or biochemical properties. Many groups have attempted different methods for separation of CTCs. Inertial microfluidics is one of the newest approaches in CTC separation technologies which separates CTCs based on their size. Current inertial microfluidic systems containing straight, spiral, serpentine and contraction expansion... 

    Mechanisms of Conjugated Linoleic acid and Enriched Glycerides Production as Neutraceuticals Food

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kouchak Yazdi, Zahra (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossughi, Manochehr (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Dietary CLA production for medicinal purposes needs a safe and selective process. Biological production methods meet this goal. In this study, the microbial species that was suitable for CLA production was selected; then the CLA produced by bioconversion methods was utilized to produce CLA-enriched triglycerides by trans-esterification. Also the biochemical kinetics of CLA production and esterification reactions to produce CLA-enriched triglycerides was studied. In the presence of two substrates, the kinetics of enzymatic reaction was studied. Then the factors influencing on the microbial yield and CLA production including reaction conditions (reaction time, cell concentration and substrate... 

    Study and Fabrication of a Microfluidic System to Investigate Stem Cell Differentiation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Motmaen Esfahani, Shayan (Author) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In recent years, many studies have conducted research about stem cells due to their prominent features such as proliferation and differentiation. By changing the specific parameters of the cellular micro-environment, it is possible to determine the stem cells fate and thereby use them in medical affairs. For this purpose, various devices and methods have been designeds such as microfluidic devices and scaffolds. The microfluidic devices has been especially focuced in the researchs due to their unique features, like the possibility of testing with small amounts of samples, the creation and control of low cost cellular micro-environment and low practical time. Two-dimensional scaffolds made up... 

    Co-microencapsulation of Probiotic Bacteria and DHA Fatty Acid; Optimization and Evaluation of the Viability of Probiotic and Oxidative Stability of DHA during Gastrointestinal Tract

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Vaziri, Asma Sadat (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Due to the increased public awareness about the role of food on health, an increased interest of consuming fortified food has grown rapidly. Probiotic bacteria and DHA poly-unsaturated fatty acid are two major bioactive ingredients becoming increasingly popular in food fortification industry due to their beneficial effects. However, high susceptibility of probiotic bacteria during production, maintenance and digestion in acidic and enzymatic conditions of gastrointestinal tract results in decreasing the survivability and therefore reducing health effects in body. Besides, having multiple double bonds in the structure of DHA fatty acid leads to oxidative degradation that produces volatile... 

    Construction of Scaffold by Electrospinning Method for Use in Skin Tissue Engineering

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Heidari Forushani, Parisa (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Making artificial skin and skin alternatives is one of the most important areas in tissue engineering. Although much progress has been made so far, there is still no definitive cure for second- and third-degree burns. To create new tissue in the body, a suitable substrate for cells is needed, which is called scaffolding, and an ideal scaffold in tissue engineering should mimic the dimensions of extracellular matrix, and nanofibers seem to be the best option for this purpose. Among the methods of manufacturing of nanofibers, electrospun is very easy and accurate method. In previous studies, many natural and synthetic polymers such as chitosan, alginate, collagen, polyathylene oxide, etc.... 

    In Silico Designing and Docking Evaluation of the Small Lectins to Inhibit Falciparum Attachment to the Midgut Epithelium of Anopheles Mosquito

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jafarabadi, Amir Hossein (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Raaz, Abbasali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The parasite entering into the blood of a malaria infected individual eventually causes the formation of gametocytes inside the blood cells. With the insect bite, the male and female gametes will enter the insect's stomach and form the zygote. After developing in the stomach, the zygote first turns into an ookinete and then into an oocyst, and by passing through the stomach wall and tearing the sporozoites, it enters the salivary glands of the insect, and if another person is bitten by that insect, the parasite enters the body of that person. and this cycle continues between the insect and the human body. Stopping this cycle requires blocking one part of this cycle. Studies show that... 

    Fabricating Scaffold by Electrospinning with Natural Polymers for Creating Skin Wound Dressings

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yousefi Zowj, Farnaz (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Skin, the largest organ in the body, presents sophisticated functions for maintaining the structural integrity of the entire body. Skin can regulate the temperature of the body, protect the body against microorganisms, have a sensory function, and produce vitamin-D through UV exposure when in direct sunlight.Due to the self-healing property of skin tissue, skin can be repaired by itself. Nevertheless, if extensive skin loss happens, owing to diabetic ulcers or deep burns, skin will not be able to repair the wound by itself. Therefore, it will lose its functions, and the fabrication of a skin equivalent will be necessary. These skin equivalents will cover the wound, regenerate the native... 

    Optimization of Xanthan Gum Separation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ranjbar Golafshani, Maedeh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Maghsoudi, Vida (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Xanthan is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide that is produced by anaerobic fermentation using the bacterium Xanthomonas campstris. Xanthan is used in various industries, including food industry and oil industry because of its appropriate rheological properties. For this reason, various studies have been done on the production and recovery of xanthan. In this study conditions for recovery of xanthan gum were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. Initially xanthan production under optimal conditions that determined in previous studies i.e. YM broth at 30 ⁰C without pH control was performed. After production, the gum separation was investigated using food solvents... 

    Construction and Optimum Condition Selection for Microbial Fuel Cell for Organic Matter Removal and Electricity Generation

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Hosseinpour, Mohammad Reza (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    A Microbial fuel cell is a Bioreactor in which chemical bands are broken and their energy convert to electricity by bio-catalysts such as microorganisms and enzymes.In this project, construction, substrate investigation and optimization of operational parameters were done. Microbial fuel cell as a waste water treatment method was considered in this project. As a result, different substrate were used in anode chamber of constructed microbial fuel cell. The most important ones were waste water containing ethylene glycol and crude oil.Consequently, lack of information about cathode operational parameters was led to optimum condition selection for pH, buffer concentration and ionic strength as... 

    Measuring Concentration of Heavy Metals in Waste Water Using Biosensor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Heydarian Dolatabadi, Ehsan (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Kalantarian, Asadollah (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Wastewater, especially with heavy metal contamination, is a global environmental concern. Numerous techniques have been tested for online controlling and monitoring the concentration of heavy metal ions; yet, there are many challenges in performing these techniques. Biosensor is cheap, easily available, simple, fast, selective, sensitive, and repeatable so it is an excellent alternative for the detection and quantification of hazardous particles in the wastewater. In this study, a Nano biosensor with high detection of copper ions has been fabricated. PEDOT:PSS as a highly conductive polymer is coupled with gold nanoparticles to modify the surface of graphite electrode and results in higher... 

    Synthesis and Stability Evaluation of Single Enzyme Nanoparticles for Enzymatic Based Processes

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Khosravi, Arezoo (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Co-Advisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Enzymes, the nanometric biocatalysts that play a key role in biochemical reactions of living cells and bio-organisms, offer various applications including biosensing, bioremediation and chemical synthesis. A simple bio-conjugation procedure to surround a single horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme molecule with dendritic polyester macromolecules (Polyester-32-hydroxyl-1-carboxyl bis-MPA Dendron, Generation 5) was proposed in this project. The characterization of resultant nanoparticles entitled HRP dendrozyme, was performed by TEM, DLS, GPC and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that HRP nanoparticles were spherical in shape and have an average size of 14 nm in diameter. Furthermore,...