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    Experimental Studies on the Application of Biosensors for Detection of Toxic Compounds

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghadiri, Mohammad (Author) ; Roosta Azad, Reza (Supervisor) ; Kariminia, Hamid Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this project, quantification of sulfide ion was investigated based on peroxidase enzyme inhibition. The fungal peroxidase was obtained from the liquid culture of Coprinus cinereus NBRC 30628. Two different biosensing systems were suggested for sulfide ion measurement: (1) An amperometric inhibition peroxidase biosensor proposed for determination of sulfide by in situ bulk polymerization of acrylamide for immobilization of peroxidase on screen-printed carbon electrode. Measurements were performed using phosphate buffer solution as a supporting electrolyte in the presence of hydroquinone as a mediator. Identification method was based on reduction of generation current, caused by hydrolysis... 

    Synthesis and Study of Catalytic Reactivity Oxo Vanadium (IV)& (V) Complexes with N,N'-Ethylenebis(Salicylimine)Ligand in Oxidation of Sulfides and Epioxidation of Olfins by Urea Hydrogen Peroxide (UHP) and Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide (TBHP)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nadiri, Siheila (Author) ; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides is an important method in organic synthesis because sulfoxides are useful synthetic intermediates for the construction of various chemically and biologically significant molecules. To date, the most important method of preparation involves the oxidation of sulfides. Various oxidizing agents are used for this purpose. Oxovanadium(IV)(Salen) and oxovanadium(V)(Salen)Cl were synthesised and screened in the vanadium-catalysed oxidation of sulfides to solfuxides with urea hydrogen peroxide(UHP) as terminal oxidant. Both complexes showed good activity and selectivity trough the catalytic reaction.characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H and 13C... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahmani, Atefeh (Author) ; Gholami, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Nanosized CdS coupled TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared by a microemulsion-mediated Hydrothermal method at relatively low temperatures. Modification of this nanocomposite with Tyrosine,Phenylalanine,Glysine and Glutamate ,especially Tyrosine resulted in enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of Nitrobenzene( NB ) compared to using CdS-TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The prepared samples were characterized by BET,SEM, XRD, UV–Vis spectroscopy ,FTIR .It was found which have high surface area about 470 m2 g−1 and mesoporous character with the average pore diameter of 2.8 nm.The results showed this nanocomposite consisted of uniform anatase TiO2 with highly dispersed cubic phase CdS... 

    A Study of Ascorbic Acid Electro-Oxidation Process on Silver and Silver Selenide Electrodes

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Majari Kasmaee, Laleh (Author) ; Gobal, Fereydoon (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Electrocatalytic oxidation of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) on silver electrode in alkaline solutions was studied employing cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and impedance spectroscopy techniques. In comparison to Pt, the onset potential for L-AA electro-oxidation process on Ag, in a solution containg 0.02 M L-AA and 0.5 M NaOH, was 0.1 V more negative. Also, L-AA oxidation current increased more than 900% at -0.26 V/SCE. According to voltammety and impedance spectropy findings, although hydroxide anion presence was vital for L-AA oxidation to occur, at potentials more positive than -0.2 V/SCE, hydroxide ion tends to inhibit the oxidation process. Studies on the L-AA oxidation process on Ag in... 

    Preparation and Properties of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles Doped with Manganese

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Raeesi, Padideh (Author) ; Mohammadi Boghaei, Davar (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The optical properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are dependent on their size. Then, the important problem in synthesized semiconductor nanoparticles is controllable of their size. In this research ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method and taguchi design of experiments and study on effect of solvent, reaction temperature and molar precursor ratio on band gap and particle size of ZnS . The UV-Vis spectrum was carried out for measurement of band gap and the size of nanoparticles by using the effective mass approximation. The X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a cubic zinc blende structure for the nanoparticles. The ZnS:Mn +2 nanoparticles werw synthesized. With... 

    Hot Workability of a Free-cutting Steel with Severe Sulfur Segregation During Continuous Casting

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Naghdy, Soroosh (Author) ; Akbarzadeh, Abbas (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Splitting in ingot cast structures and transverse cracks in continuous cast structures are the main problems of hot rolling of low carbon resulfurized free-cutting (LCRF) steels. Presence of high volume fraction of manganese sulfide inclusions in cast structure increases the risk of alligatoring in hot rolling. Because of high sulfur content of these steels and probability of formation of low melting point phases, minimum level of manganese and maximum level of copper and tin is necessary. Morphology of manganese sulfide is another important factor in hot forming of these steels, which can be controlled by level of deoxidation in steel making. In fact, MnS2 is present in fully killed... 

    Study of CdS thin Film Deposition on Single Layer Grapheme using Close Space Sublimation and SILAR Methods

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bagheripour, Amir Hossein (Author) ; Asgari, Sirous (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were successfully fabricated in argon atmosphere on glass slides and Single Layer Graphene(SLG)/Cu foil stack by close space sublimation technique in three different deposition temperatures. Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique is used as a complementary technique for better and denser layers. Analysis techniques such as Grazing Incident X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope images were used for structural study of the deposited layers. Polycrystallinity and hexagonal wurtzite structure of the thin films is confirmed. For band gap calculations and for determination of optical behavior of the layers in different... 

    Synthesis of some Cu(II) - 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline and Mn(III) - 2-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline Complexes and their Application as Catalysts in Sulfides and Alcohols Oxidations

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology tahay moghadam, Pooya (Author) ; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this project two manganese(III) complexes with 2-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline ligand, [Mn(4-OHphox)3], [Mn(4-OHphox)2(CH3OH)2]ClO4 and a copper(II) complex with 2-(2'-hydroxy)-2-oxazoline ligand have been synthesized. The complexes and the ligands were characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), FT-IR and 1HNMR spectroscopies. Oxidation of sulfides catalyzed by these complexes using urea-hydrogen peroxide (UHP) as oxidant within short reaction times (5 min) was investigated. The results showed that catalytic efficiency of [Mn(4-OHphox)3] complex was better than other complexes. Optimization of the catalyst system presented a high selectivity of sulfoxide (90-100%) in a few time (5... 

    Modification of Repair Welding on Control Valves and Flanges of Sure Gas

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohammad, Nasr Esfahani (Author) ; Kokabi, Amir Hossein (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this research, for optimization of repair welding of control valve and flange that use in East Oil& Gas Company, effect of chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and stress relive on sulfide stress cracking (SSC) investigated with select of four electrodes. All welds were prepared by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and investigated with optical microscope, hardness test, tensile test and SSC test. The results showed that increase of nickel content in the range of 0.032–1.58 wt. % in weld metals, decrease of acicular ferrite and increase of side plate ferrite, grain boundary ferrite and M/A micro constituent in microstructure. Ni3S2 decrease SSC resistance and (FeCu).S increase... 

    The Effect of Cadmium, Calcium and Zinc on Optoelectronic Properties of PbS Quantum Dots

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mirfasih, Mohammad Hassan (Author) ; Simchi, Abdolreza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In recent years, much attention has been focused on quantum dot films due to their high amount of surface area and their size-dependant band-gap tenability. However, high surface area results in increase in energy traps in case of insufficient surface passivation. In this research, PbS colloidal quantum dots were synthesized via hot injection route having the size of 3 nm approximately. Then cationic doping with Zn, Ca and Cd and ligand exchange of long oleic acid with short organic mercaptopionic acid were done. Excitonic peak of these dots and photoluminescence peak appeard in wavelengths of 930 and 1100 nm respectively. Optimum film thickness was also determined as 300 nm. Quantum dot... 

    Investigation of Nano-particle Structures CdS using Density Functional Theory

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mazloom Farsibaf, Hanieh (Author) ; Nafari, Naser (Supervisor) ; Rahimitabar, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this project, we have studied the geometric and electronic structures of CdS nano-particles. The bulk CdS is known to be a semiconductor with the experimental energy gap of 2.42eV which is more than twice the theoretical resuls based on LDA or GGA energy functionals used in the density functional theory. However the calculations based on Kohn-Sham formalism used in DFT (KS-DFT) predicts the geometric structure of bulk semiconductors fairly well. Therefore, we have employed the KS-DFT formalism for our CdS nano-particles and have used the Gaussian as well as SIESTA computer codes to predict the geometric structures of these nano-semiconductor-particles. For calculating their electronic... 

    Fabrication of Superstrate Copper Indium Sulfide Solar Cell Avoiding Titanium Dioxide Blocking Layer

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Safi Samghabadi, Farnaz (Author) ; Taghavinia, Nima (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    During recent years, thin-film solar cells based on chalcogenide light absorbers with CuInxGa1-xS(Se)2 compound have attracted considerable attraction due to their desirable band gaps and demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies. These solar cells are fabricated under two categories named as ‘substrate’ and ‘superstrate’, generally. The best reported energy conversion efficiency belongs to substrate type (sodalime glass/Mo/absorber layer/buffer layer/window layer) CIGS solar cells, most have been fabricated with vacuum processes. In spite of this, superstrate solar cells (transparent conducting oxide/blocking layer/buffer layer/absorber layer/back contact) provide easier and cheaper... 

    Using of SnS2 Nanostructured Layer as an Electron Transport Layer in the Perovskite Solar Cells

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Haghighi, Maryam (Author) ; Mahdavi, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Taghavinia, Nima (Supervisor) ; Mohammadpour, Raheleh (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this research, we focus on study and investigation of the role of Tin(IV) Sulfide (SnS2) nanostructured layer as electron transport layer in perovskite and chalcogenide thin film solar cells. For this purpose, SnS2 powder was prepared through hydro/solvo-thermal method, utilizing different ratios of water and ethanol as solvent and various sulfur sources (thioacetamide and thiourea). Afterwards, different solvents were investigated to achieve a stable ink (about one month) with uniform dispersion. After determining the appropriate ink and powder, thin films of SnS2 were prepared employing spin coating, spray pirolysis and laser pulsed deposition (PLD) methods and characterized. With each... 

    Simulation of Mild Steel Corrosion in H2S Aqueous Solution

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Fallah Mohammadi, Ehsan (Author) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Corrosion is a main problem for oil and gas industries at refineries and petrochemical process. Presence of sulfur compounds in crude oil and creation a corrosive environment for steel structure, caused failure and unfortunate damages. H2S which present at cracking and sweetening process in sour feed obtain hydrogen atoms that can diffuse into steel structure which involve with its instruments and consequent to hydrogen damage .distribution and storage of these sour environments can be done by high strength low alloy steel (HSLA).Electrochemical hydrogen permeation test were performed to measure the hydrogen permeation current through A106/GR B pipeline steel in the electrolytes simulating... 

    Studying and Synthesize of H2S Gas Sensors Based on Modified WO3 Nanostructure Thin Films

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kashani, Shima (Author) ; Iraji zad, Aazam (Supervisor) ; Rahimi, Fereshte (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    H2S is a toxic gas used in chemical laboratories and industries. H2S is also liberated in nature due to biological processes and also from mines and petroleum fields. At some threshold level, exposure to concentrations over 10 ppm can result in headaches, irritability, dizziness and in some case leads to death. So that introducing sensors which sense H2S at ppm level with the low response time is so essential. The present work emphasizes on H2S resistance-sensing properties of pure and Pd doped WO3 films prepared by Arc discharge method. XRD, SEM, EDAX and XPS were applied to analyze crystal structure, morphology and chemical composition of the films. The analyzes results showed that films... 

    Experimental Determination & Thermodynamic Modeling of Solubility of Gases in Ionic Liquids

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahmati Rostami, Mahboubeh (Author) ; Ghotbi, Cyrus (Supervisor) ; Behzadi, Bahman (Supervisor) ; Jalili, Amir Hossein (Supervisor) ; Ahmadi, Amir Naser (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Ionic liquids (IL's) are found to be potentially suitable solvents for the chemical process industry, especially due to their negligible vapor pressure which can result in a major decrease of solvent loss and the environmental harm. One of the foreseeable industrial applications in the field of natural gas processing is the replacement of traditional organic solvents (usually alkanol amines) presently used for the absorption of H2S from sour gases, by suitable IL's. Ionic liquids have been proposed for the separation of gas mixtures. In particular, ionic liquids have been suggested for the removal of the acid gases, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, from natural gases and refinery gases.... 

    Preparation of Membrane Contactor for H2S, CO2 and CH4 Separation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ashoubi, Farzad (Author) ; Roosta Azad, Reza (Supervisor) ; Moosavi, Abbas (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Recently separation technology has been developed and engineers are trying to find more rapid and more economic ways in order to reach pure materials. One of the most important needs of human being is natural gas which has some impurities. Acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide must be separated from methane. This operation is called gas sweetening. Membrane contactors are equipments recently developed and may be used instead of packed towers for gas sweetening in the future. In this project we designed and made a membrane contacting unit to separate carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from methane. This unit lets you to study the effect of many parameters such as gas and... 

    Investigation of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Modified by Platinum Nanoparticles as Hydrogen Sulfide Sensor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Salmani Rezaie, Salva (Author) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor) ; Ghorbani, Mohamad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The present research describes sensing behavior of modified aligned carbon nanotubes toward detection of hydrogen sulfide. Aligned carbon nanotubes were grown on etched stainless steel by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Obtained CNTs have curved closed tips and bamboo like structure. Purification of carbon nanotubes were performed by electrochemical oxidation of CNTs. Potential cycling was applied on grown CNTs in different acid solutions and 0.2 M sulfuric acid was chosen to oxidize the CNTs. Carboxylic functional groups were produced by electrochemical oxidation of CNTs and can be observed in FTIR studies. These groups enhanced the electrochemical properties of electrodes and may act as... 

    Doping Effect of Copper and Copper Oxide on H2S Sensing of Nanostructured WO3

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nowrouzi, Rasoul (Author) ; Iraji Zad, Azam (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The aim of this research is preparation of tungsten trioxide nanoparticles film for hydrogen sulfide gas sensing. These nanoparticles were made by simple and inexpensive sol-gel method. To improve gas sensing properties, various precursors of copper and copper oxides were added to the sol. This solution was coated on alumina substrate by spin coating method. After annealing, sensing properties of samples were studied by measuring the electrical resistance. Best precursor and its molar percentage of copper to tungsten were selected (WO3-Cu2O (1%)). All tests for this sample were done in temperatures below 100 °C and gas concentration lower than 10 ppm. Sensitivity of WO3-Cu2O (1%) to 1 ppm... 

    Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-zeolite Membranes for Natural Gas Sweetening

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Maghsoudi, Hafez (Author) ; Soltanieh, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Zeolite membranes are of interest due to their special properties; thermal and mechanical resistances and non-plasticization property in gas separations. Therefore, separation of H2S from natural gas by these membranes is the main goal of this thesis which is not investigated in the world. After some theoretical investigations including diffusion mechanisms of gases in the zeolites and adsorption mechanism of H2S on the zeolites, pure silica CHA-type (Si-CHA) zeolite was selected. After successful synthesis of Si-CHA zeolite, adsorption isotherms of H2S, CO2, and CH4 on the Si-CHA zeolite were measured over pressure range of 0-190 kPa and temperatures of 25 °C, 50 °C, and 75 °C. Acid gases...