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    Biological Removal of Acrylamide Produced During the Baking Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Matouri, Mashaer (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In recent year's acrylamide as a suspected substance for tumor growth has been studied. In some researches this topic is mentioned that acrylamide is produced by the reaction of asparagine and natural sugars. This reaction takes place only at very high temperatures during the heating process. The maximum amount of this substance is determined in fried potato products. In this study, a response surface methodology (RSM) 5-level-3-factor face centre central-composite design (FCCCD) was applied to envestigate the effects of asparaginase (300-900 U/kg of flour), baking temperature (230-280 °c) and baking time (13-16 min) on acrylamide (AA) formation in yeast-leavened wheat bread and... 

    Ways to Detect Dounterfeit Honey

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Emrani, Morteza (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Honey as a food product with plant origin that nearly ninety percent of its dry weight is composed of sugars (mostly fructose and glucose) which has many food and pharmaceutical properties. So honey quality strongly depends on bees feeding practices. For this reason common indexes is defined generally are on the basis of hony composition, for example fructose and reducing sugar portion must be at least thirty and sixty-five percent respectively of total weight or sucrose percent must be utmost five and otherwise puts into question honey quality. To check the quality of five honey samples taken from the market, indexes such as water content, sugar composition(fructose, reducing and total... 

    Preparing a Coated Tablet of Vitamin C

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rastegar, Mehrnoush (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Vitamin C is one of the essential ingredients for the survival of human beings, animals and plants. This vitamin is an ester that in its structure there is a cyclic ester, an alkene Factor (C = C) and four hydroxyl factor (OH). This vitamin is a white solid, water-soluble and non-toxic that exists in many fruits, especially citrus. Its presence in the diet of human resistance them against infections increases. The main factor causing acidic property in vitamin C is the presence of OH groups attached to the alkene. Various forms of vitamin C exists in pharmaceutical collection of European countries. Since the tablet form because of the many advantages including being economical compared with... 

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Production Via Chemical Method Using Vegetable Oils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Afarin, Maryam (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds, has gained considerable attention because of its anticarcinogenic and obesity treatment properties. The most biologically active CLA isomers are 9c, 11t-18:2 and 10t, 12c-18:2. Natural sources of CLA are fat of meat and dairy products derived from ruminant animals. About 3 grams of CLA per day is necessary to provide human health needs, but each person receives about 10% of this value from natural resources, thus production of CLA as a dietary supplement is necessary. CLA is produced from biological and chemical methods but because of high yield of chemical... 

    Producing l-theanine from Liquid Waste Obtained from Tea Polyphenol Production(and Biosynthesis of Theanine by Glutaminase)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sakhaei, Minoo (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Theanine is a non-protein amino acid which was first isolated from tea plant leaves (Camellia sinensis) and also found in a mushroom named Xerocomus badius and some other Camellia species such as C.japonica and C.sasanqua. Theanine comprises about 50% of amino acids in tea and 1-2% of dry weight of tea leaves. It contributes to the umami taste and unique flavor to tea infusion and has many physiological and pharmaceutical effects such as anti-tumor and anti-cancer activity, neuroprotection, antihypertensive, relaxation, increased focus and anti-obesity effects. So this compound is essential for human body but is not synthesized in it and should be administrated orally. In recent years, study... 

    Producing of Peroxidase Enzymes using Pahnerochaete Chrysosporium for Decolorization of Molasses Wastewater

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Alizadeh, Manijheh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    The treatment of water effluent from alcohol industries is among the most challenging industrial wastewater treatments. The challenge mainly arises from the high capacity of organic compounds allowing the growth of microorganisms and pollutants. Brown color of the wastewater also contributes to this phenomenon; it absorbs more sunlight which then reduces the oxygenation of water and thus adversely affecting the aquatic life. Moreover, the acidity of the wastewater decreases the pH level of agricultural soils, so its quality Thus, distillery wastewater, without any treatment can pose a serious threat to the environment. In our study, we investigate the decolorization of molasses wastewater... 

    Liposome Nanoparticles Synthesis in order to Study the Antibiotic Drug Delivery in Simulated Environment of Body

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bahari, Mohsen (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In recent years, much attention has been paid to the preparation of nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery. Nanoparticle carriers, by changing the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug, improve the function of the drug and reduce its side effects. In the manufacture of nanoparticles, various materials such as polymers, metal particles, lipids, etc. are used to transfer the drugs, which can produce a different shape and size of the particles depending on their production method. The purpose of this project is the synthesis of liposomal nanoparticles (as nano-carriers) to load an antibiotic (Eucalyptus oil) and study the release of the encapsulated drug in the simulated environment of... 

    Determination of Micro Encapsulation of Probiotic

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Najafizadeh, Mobarakeh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Probiotics are defined as essential live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. In order to provide health benefits for probiotic bacteria it has been recommended that they must be present at a minimum level of 106 CFU/g of food product or 107 CFU/g at point of delivery or be eaten in sufficient amounts to yield a daily intake of 108 CFU. Several studies have shown that certain strain of lactic acid bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus prevent some diseases linked to the gastro-intestinal tract. however, many reports have demonstrated their poor survival and stability. Their survival in the... 

    Separation and Purification of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers from Vegetable Oils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hajizadeh, Mohammad (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds, has gained considerable attention because of its anticarcinogenic and obesity treatment properties. The most biologically active CLA isomers are 9c, 11t-18:2 and 10t, 12c-18:2. The aim of this study is to separate and purify the two essential isomers via enzymatic method by Candida rugosa lipase and chemical method by urea crystallization and also optimization of reaction conditions in order to better separation. For enzymatic purification, L-menthol and Lauryl alcohol were used separately. Optimization of reaction conditions by enzyme content, time and the ratio of... 

    Folic Acid Microencapsulation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kiaeipour, Pegah (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Most natural folate derivatives are highly sensitive to temperature, oxygen and light and their stability depends on food process condition. Alginate and pectin were evaluated for folic acid encapsulation and increasing its stability. By combining them and optimising encapsulation condition the efficiency was enhanced up to 90% . Furthermore, using polymers in combined form caused decrease in folic acid leakage from capsules in acidic condition of stomach. First of all, the time of encapsulation was measured which was 140-180 minutes. In this study the effect of Calcium Chloride concentration on encapsulation was studied. Therefore, two variables were selected which were pectin to algine... 

    Production of Biocellulose Nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter and Evaluation of the Release of the Azithromycin Antibiotic Loaded on It in a Simulated Gastric Fluid

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Gholizadeh, Yousef (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Bacterial cellulose is a kind of cellulose with high purity and Crystallization, which is mainly produced by gram-negative bacteria in aqueous media containing a sugar source.Cellulose produced by this method is in the form of nanofibers and one of its considerable aspects, nowadays, is that this kind of cellulose is used as a drug carrier system for treating various diseases. Azithromycin is used as an antibiotic for the treatment of a wide range of bacterial infections. In this study, cellulose nanofibers were synthesized by gluconacetobacter and its surface was modified using 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg/ml carboxymethylcellulose solution in sodium acetate buffer. Then, by stabilizing azithromycin... 

    Optimization of Encapsulation of Probiotic Living Cells

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sajjadi Dehkordi, Sahar (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In the recent year, there has been a rising interest in producing functional foods containing encapsulated probiotic bacteria according to their perceived health benefits. Probiotics are feed and food supplements that beneficially affect the host’s health. The term “probiotic” includes a large range of microorganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria. Because they can stay alive until the intestine and provide health beneficial effects like lowering cholesterol, improving lactose tolerance and preventing some cancers like colon cancer on the host health. It has been recommended that the viability of probiotics should be at least 107 CFU/ml of product at time of consumptions to provide selective... 

    Immobilization of Enzymes to Nanoparticles for use in Wastewater Treatment

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nisan, Roya Sadat (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Nowadays , application of enzymes as biocatalysts in wastewater treatment processes is increasing. It is economically important to reuse enzymes and increase their stability in these types of processes. Therefore, was immobilization of enzymes and using them in wastewater treatment have a great importance.In this project, Horseradish peroxidase enzyme, whose effect on phenol removal reactions in other studies has been proven before, was immobilized on the alginate-coated magnetic nanoparticles, to investigate the effect of immobilization on the stability and function of this enzyme for phenol removal. The enzyme was immobilized at the temperature of 25 ° C and pH = 8, according to the data... 

    Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Ferrous Biooxidation in a Monolithic Bioreactor

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kahrizi, Ehsan (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    The bio-oxidation of ferrous iron is a potential industrial process in the regeneration of ferric iron and the removal of H2S in combustible gases. Bio-oxidation of ferrous iron may be an alternative method of producing ferric sulfate, which is a reagent used for removal of H2S from biogas, tail gas and pulp and paper industry. For practical use of this process, this study evaluated the optimal pH and initial ferric concentration. pH control looks like a key factor as it acts both on growth rate and on solubility of materials in the system. Some process variables such as pH and amount of initial ferrous ions on oxidation by A. ferrooxidans and the effects of such process variables dilution... 

    Experimental Study of Oily Wastewater Treatment by Hybrid Baffled Bioreactor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zolfaghari, Mehdi (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vosoughi, Manochehr (Supervisor)
    Oil refineries, petrochemical factories and oil platforms produce a large amount of oily wastewater every day. If these wastewaters are released in environment, it can damage soil and water seriously. Although, Biological treatment of oily wastewaters is a well-established method for remediation of these wastes, efficiency of conventional systems such as Activated Sludge, aren’t very high. Also these systems have many problems such as instability during hydraulics shocks and bulking phenomena. the hybrid bioreactor system are designed to increase the efficiency of treatment by allowing greater organic loads, increasing microbial concentration by using attached and suspended bacteria, and... 

    Study of a Biosensor Based on Nanofibers

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Shamloo, Arezoo (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In this project an enzymatic peroxidase biosensor based on two naono structured material 1-Polyaniline nananofibers 2-Polyethylene glycol-Poly citric acid copolymer was studied for phenol detection.Polyaniline nanofibers and poly ethylene glycol-poly citric acid copolymer were synthetized by chemical polymerization.Electrochemical behaviors of these biosensors were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric techniques. The amperometric response of the coated electrodes is highly stable with 92% of the initial activity remaining after 5 determinations. These phenol biosensors show an oxidation peak at 0.55V. The amperometric response for phenol biosensor based on Polyaniline... 

    Antioxidant Production from Rice Bran and Optimization of the Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Arab, Fatemeh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Maghsoudi, Vida (Supervisor)
    An antioxidant is a molecule capable of preventing the oxidation of other molecules and neutralizing free radicals. Free radicals are the root cause for many human diseases.Rice bran is one of the most important co-products in the rice milling.In this research antioxidant activity of two Iranian rice bran varieties Fajr and Tarem, extracted by three different solvents (methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate),determined at different time of extraction by measurement of total phenolic content, free radical scavenging, inhabitation of linoleic acid peroxidation and reducing power. The methanolic extract of Fajr rice bran produced strong results in antioxidant activity. The amount of Total... 

    Petroleum Wastewater Treatment by Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Safa, Mahdieh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor)
    Many chemicals exist in the petroleum wastewater, whose disposal into the environment can result in environmental pollutions and serious damages to the ecosystem.Since conventional treatment processes are not sufficient to achieve the water quality requirements, advanced treatment processes are required. In this study, Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor (HMBR), Rotating biological contactor with packing (RBCp) coupled with an external membrane, is used for synthetic petroleum wastewater treatment. Biodegradability of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and that of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were evaluated and compared for different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and petroleum pollution... 

    Biofuel Alcohol Production from Agricultural Residues in a Slurry Bioreactor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sattari, Behzad (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Nowadays bioethanol is one of the main factors in the fuel market. It is currently produced from sugars and starchy materials, but lignocelluloses can be expected to be major feedstocks for ethanol production in the future. Agricultural residues such as wheat straw are being considered a potential lignocellulose raw material for fuel-ethanol production as an alternative to starch or sugar-containing feedstock. In order to produce bioethanol, it is necessary to decompose the wheat straw into soluble sugars. But lignocellulosic materias needs pretreatment before hydrolysis and fermentation. The main goal of pretreatment is to increase the enzyme accessibility improving digestibility of... 

    Using SiO2¬ Nano Particles in Enhanced Oil Recovery Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghajari, Zeinab (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor)
    After primary and secondary recovery processes more than 50 percent of oil remains in reservoirs. Therefore for more recovery from these reservoirs, methods of enhanced oil recovery should be applied.In this paper the effect of nanoparticles of SiO2 in size of 14 nm, on wettability is investigated. Using this nanoparticle, the wettability of carbonate rock in reservoirs could be changed and alter from oil-wet or mix-wet to water-wet. To assess this, hydrophilic changes of sandstone core and carbonate core are studied using the contact angle test. The same test is done on the carbonate core saturated with brine and oil that had received injection with brine and nanoparticles of SiO2 with two...